Yr13 Intelligence Studies

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sampled 200 adults, comparing Gardner's 8 domains, finding varying correlation strengths between varying pairs
Created the triarchic theory, stating that intelligence is composed of different components that assess the best way to deal with a solution, execute processes and handle info.
investigated knowledge attribution in chimps
Investigated theory of mind in Chimps
examined Machiavellian intelligence in baboons
Identified an increase in IQs in all cultures over the past 80 years, leading to a self titled 'effect'
Investigated genetics of IQ using MZ/DZ twins, though it was later suggested he made most of it up
Composed a 3 level hierarchical model. Differed from 2 level model by saying retrieval and cognitive speed aren't part of intelligence
Devised progressive matrices, wherein the same problem gets progressively harder, thus requiring greater cognitive abilities
Researched classical conditioning using dogs: related to research into simple learning
Found monkeys will manipulate fellow monkeys, leading them to a box with a snake in so they can eat in peace
Paired rats, gave one a distinctive flavoured food, and found the other would select the same food when given a choice
Believed intelligence was a single quality: subsequently found he was wrong by running a stall in South Kensington Museum
found brain size correlates with foraging range in animals (relates to evolution of intelligence)
found twins reared together had a very similar intelligence concordance rate to twins reared apart
devised the first proper intelligence test in France, leading to the creation of the I.Q.
observed monkeys imitating a leader who washed potatoes before eating
created intelligence fair assessment, aimed at testing each of Gardner's domains in a natural state (Spectrum for pre-schoolers)
Researched non-human intelligence, suggesting that social learning could benefit animals
Found nutrition has an effect on intelligence: children given dietary supplements had higher IQs after than those who didn't
investigated chimps' ability to deceive for food
Found that children of mothers who smoked more that 20 cigarettes a day during pregnancy did badly on IQ tests, suggesting prenatal factors in intelligence
Multi-factorial model with 8 intelligence domains
found significant correlation between brain size and social group (linked to evolution of intelligence)
criticised behavioural approaches by pointing out preparedness cannot be accounted for
Agreed with Galton's idea of a single 'intelligence', referring to it as general intelligence, or 'g'
Created a multi-factorial model, claiming there are seven primary mental abilities
Used self-titled boxes to teach animals using reward and punishment
Composed a 2 level hierarchial model: 'g', then 5 intelligence types
Established a basic idea of what intelligence was by asking leading psychologists and members of the public to define what they thought made a person 'intelligent'
suggested animals don't necessarily use trial and error, but think about the problem first, e.g. Sultan the chimp.
created a purely statistical intelligence test, using normal distribution. His scales are known as WISC-R
Suggested 3 methods of assessing the genetic importance in intelligence: family studies, adoption studies and twin studies
Found lab-reared monkeys have no natural fear to snakes, but can learn this fear

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