Amino acids outside of proteins

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Can you name the functions of amino acids OTHER THAN inclusion in proteins?

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FunctionAmino acidAdditional information
Decarboxylated to form histamine
Amino group donor in amino sugar biosynthesis
Precursor to the vitamin niacin
Reactant in ammonia fixation
Important component in the urea cycle, formed in cytoplasm alongside urea in final step
Yields intermediate in polyamine biosynthesis, which are important for binding to excessive negative charge
Amino acid neurotransmitter with the SMALLER molecular mass
Amino acid neurotransmitter with the LARGER molecular mass - primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS
Source of GABA, the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS
Source of one-carbon fragments used in biosynthesis
Formed in mitochondria during urea cycle by transfer of carbamoyl group
Precursor to the neurotransmitter serotonin
Predominant circulating amino acid with the LARGER molecular mass, used in amino group transport
Conjugated to a cholesterol derivative to form a bile salt
FunctionAmino acidAdditional information
Reacts with ATP to form SAM, an important source of methyl groups for methylation reactions
Immediate precursor of urea in urea cycle
Source of amino groups in transamination reactions
Amino group donor in purine biosynthesis (does NOT get incorporated!)
Form of activated ammonium ions, source of ammonium in the kidney
Source of second messenger nitric oxide
Yields important intermediate in melanin synthesis
Predominant circulating amino acid with the SMALLER molecular mass, used in amino group transport
One of the three amino acids involved in creatine biosynthesis
Precursor to the catecholamine and thyroid hormones
Condenses with succinyl CoA in the first step of heme biosynthesis
Initial reactant for nonessential amino acid tyrosine's synthesis
Directly INCORPORATED during de novo synthesis of purines

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