Organic Chemistry Chemical Tests

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Can you name the organic chemical tests?

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H2O + NH3 → OH- + NH4+
Test and +ve resultInference(s)No. (level)
Add phosphorus(V) chloride. Steamy fumes given off that turn damp blue litmus paper red.2 (AS)
Warm with acidified potassium dichromate(VI). Orange solution turns green3 (being specific here) (AS)
Warm with aqueous sodium/potassium hydroxide, acidify with dilute nitric acid then add aqueous silver nitrate. 3 possible precipitates: White, Cream, Yellow.3 (Ans: C-[1], C-[2], C-[3] in order given) (AS)
Iodine in alkaline solution. Pale yellow precipitate formed.1 (A2)
Boil with Fehling’s or Benedict’s solution. Blue solution gives red precipitate.1 (AS)
Add a small piece of sodium. Effervescence (bubbles), sodium dissolves, white solid formed.3 (2xAS + 1xA2)
Warm with carboxylic acid and a few drops of concentrated sulfuric acid. Ester smell, eg glue-like.1 (A2)
Test and +ve resultInference(s)No. (level)
Warm with ammoniacal silver nitrate (Tollens’ reagent). Silver mirror forms on glassware or grey-black precipitate forms.1 (AS)
Sodium nitrite and dilute hydrochloric acid followed by an alkaline solution of phenol in ice-cold conditions. Orange precipitate formed1 (A2)
Shake with bromine water. Yellow solution is decolorised and white precipitate also formed.1 (A2)
Shake with bromine water. Yellow solution is decolorised1 (AS)
Add sodium or potassium carbonate or hydrogencarbonate solution. Effervescence.1 (AS)
Shake with 2,4−dinitrophenylhydrazine solution. Orange precipitate formed.2 (A2)

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