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What is the third phase of the bacterial growth curve?
Which part of lipopolysaccharide toxic?
TERM - A non-coding DNA regulatory region immediantly upstream of a structural gene that is needed for transcription initiation.
Which immune response is present at birth?
TERM - molecules that gain or release small amounts of energy in reversible reactions.
____________ media exploits differences between two species that grow equally well.
This person is known for demonstrating that a sealed flask of meat broth sterilized by boiling failed to grow microbes.
Translation ends at the ______ codon.
Translation begins at the _____ codon.
What two bacteria species produce endospores?
Live microorganisms that are thought to be beneficial to the host organisms are called...
An example of when infection doe not cause disease.
TERM - The set of chemical reactions that happen in living organisms to maintain life.
Define antisepsis.
An organism that thrives in physically or geochemically extreme conditions that are detrimental to most life on Earth.
DNA is polymerized in the _____ direction.
What is Tetracycline's course of action?
Define sanitation.
Term for rendering something free of pathogens.
'Acetyl-COA enters TCA by condensing with the 4-C oxaloacetate to form citrate' Is the (first, second, third) step of TCA.
What is the leading cause of diarrhea worldwide?
The genome of Influenza A facilitates __________ between two strains coinfecting the same cell.
An organism that thrives at relatively high temperatures, between 45 and 80 °C.
What can phosphates in detergents can cause?
What are the products of the TCA cycle?
What pathogen is the leading cause of hospitalization/death from a foodborne pathogen?
Cytotoxic T-cells possess what type of coreceptor?
T1 and T2 cells have what type of MHC restriction?
Which antibiotic inhibits transcription by selectively binding to RNA polymerase?
Levels of __________ decrease in the water as a result of algal bloom.
What is the DNA backbone is composed of?
Name the energy carriers.
'To preserve food by limiting microbial growth' is one purpose of ___________.
Which T-cells kill virus infected cells and cancer cells?
What is Streptomycin's course of action?
What causes UTI?
Which T-cell responds to antigens in the bloodstream?
TERM - The ribosomal synthesis of proteins based on triplet codons present in mRNA.
Influenza A has a ____________ genome.
Define sterilization.
What is the #1 bacterial pathogen in the world?
Process that eliminates (removes) or kills all forms of life.
Name the causative agent for cholera.
Gene expression can be controlled through ___________ _____________.
Detection of food occurs through a process that is like a what?
Small, high-affinity iron chelating compounds secreted by bacteria.
Fermentation is used by bacteria in the absence of what?
TERM - refers to the presence of pathogens in a food product.
Which T-cell's role is to activate cytotoxic t-cells?
This antibiotic disrupts translation by inbiting the 70s ribosome formation.
Which antibiotic inhibits transcription by nonselectively binding to DNA?
What did Joseph Lister develop?
This antibiotic disrupts translation by inhibiting aminoacyl-tRNA binding to the A site.
TERM - refers to microbial changes that render a product obviously unfit or unpalatable for consumption.
Core polymerase is required for the (initiation, elongation) phase.
What is used to kill spores?
This antibiotic disrupts translation by inhibiting peptidyltransferase
Process where bacterial cells work together at high density.
Actinomycin D inhibits __________ __________.
TERM - Requires a GC-rich region of RNA, as well as 4-8 consectutive U residues.
Food receptors are like the ________ __________.
Rifamycin B inhibits __________ ____________.
____________ changes it's flagella from one type to another by _________ a _____ ____________, called the H control region, that contains the ___________ that controls one flagella
Give one reason why the skin is difficult to colonize.
TERM - Occurs when a lake receives large amounts of nutrients, such as runoff from agricultural fertilizer or septic systems.
Which species causes Chlamydia?
What is Erythromycin's course of action?
Process of heating food, usually liquid, for an extended period of time and then rapidlly cooling it.
________ produce antibodies to bind to antigens.
Rifamycin B inhibits transcription initiation by...
Term for the destruction of inhibition of microorganisms that exist on living tissue.
TERM - The amount of oxygen removed from the water by aerobic respiration.
Gram ___ bacteria has a thick cell wall.
Gonorrhea is caused by which bacteria species?
DNA polymerase has an exonuclease activity and can ____________.
The genetic code is _________ because different codons can code for the same amino acid.
The four nucleotides of DNA are: ??? (alphabetical order)
How many energy carriers are there?
One purpose of fermentation is to add __________ and ____________ _____________
_______ and ________ transfer electrons to the electron transport system
What scientist performed a famous experiment using a swan neck flask?
________ modulate specific immune response.
Norovirus and Rotovirus cause ________.
DNA strands come together in a __________ fashion.
Term for behavior in which motile bacteria swim toward favorable environments.
____________ media favors the growth of one organism over another.
The autoinducer secreted in quorum sensing _________________, but it _________________ to ________________ that now changes the transcription of genes (used by Vibrio fischeri with
The innate immune response uses (specific, nonspecific) responses to destroy invading cells.
TERM - A reducing agent.
Which T-cell responds to antigens from infected cells?
These are extragenomic DNA molecules.
T1 and T2 cells possess what type of coreceptor?
TERM - The ability to do work.
What are the four mechanisms of antibiotic resistance?
What is DNA polymerized by?
__:___ women get PID and __:__ of those women become sterile
Name the two ways of replication plasmids use.
The overall process of electron transport and ATP generation is termed?
Rho-dependent relies on a protein called 'Rho' and a strong pause site at the ___ end of the gene
Three purposes of fermentation.
The flagellar motor is like the __________ ____________.
What is the growth phase of the bacterial growth curve called?
TERM - A bacterial, viral, or fungal agent of disease.
Cytotoxic T-cells have what type of MHC restriction?
What is the name of the bacteria species that causes acne?
Techoic Acids are in which type of bacteria cell wall?
What color will gram negative bacteria turn when stained?
What kind of toxin is cholera toxin?
The four steps of inflammation are?
In the Electron Transport System, what drives the ATP synthase to produce ATP?
What does Botox cause?
Bacterial capsules prevent _______ by phagocytes.
The lagging strand is replicated ___________.
Term for the set of pathways that break down molecules into smaller units and release energy.
Term for the set of pathways that use energy to build molecules.
What are the complexes of the ETS called?
What does eutrophication cause?
RNA is polymerized in the _____ direction.
What bacteria species destroys cillia in the mucociliary escalator?
What are Rho-dependent and Rho-independent are classifications of?
TERM - an oxidizing agent.
What is the most frequently reported STD in the United States?
This antibiotic disrupts translation by causing abortive translocation.
Define disinfection.
Which MHC is found only on antigen presenting cells?
Tetanus toxin causes ________ _________.
What are the three parts of LPS?
Which MHC is found on all nucleated cells?
__________ and __________ destroy microbes by phagocytosis
Term for the killing or removal of pathogens from inanimate objects.
What does active transport require?
Gram ____ bacteria has a thin cell wall.
PID is caused by?
The sigma factor is required for the (initiation, elongation) phase
Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
Name the first phase of the bacterial growth curve.
This person showed that maggots in decaying meat were the offspring of flies and not the result of spontaneous generation.
Lymphocytes consist of ________ and __________
The adaptive immune response reacts to specific (antigens, antibodies)
Monocytes diffentiate into _________ and ____________
Ciliated mucous lining is in the _______, _________, and ___________?
___% of women with Chlamydia have no symptoms but damage still occurs.
Pathogens use portals of entry best suited to their methods of __________.
Lungs and trachea are usually _________.
Which T-cell's role is to help B-cells?
Bacteria that grow at temperatures of less than about 15 °C.
What is Chloramphenicol's course of action?
The PMF drives the...?
What bacteria species is resposible for causing whooping cough?
What is the bacterial capsule made of?
A series of three adjacent bases in one polynucleotide chain of a DNA or RNA molecule, which codes for a specific amino acid.
TERM - The synthesis of RNA complementary to a DNA template
Organism that grows best in moderate temperature, neither too hot nor too cold, typically between 25 and 40 °C.
The leading strand is replicated ___________.
The role of the ciliated mucous lining?
A dormant, tough, and temporarily non-reproductive structure produced by certain bacteria.

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