Rock 'n' Roll Hall of Fame - 1990

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Can you name the people/bands inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1990?

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Induction CategoryInducteeHint
Early InfluenceOne of the greatest jazz musicians of all time, he was responsible for innovations that filtered down through popular music to rock and roll. As a trumpet player, he was a pioneering soloist and one of the first true virtuosos in jazz. As a singer, he was one of the originators of scat-singing, and his warm, ebullient vocal style had a big impact on the way all pop music was sung. As an entertainer, his charismatic presence allowed him to break through race barriers to become one of the first black superstars - a figure who would eventually become known as America’s Jazz Ambassador. Probably most popularly known for his version of 'What a Wonderful World'.
PerformerThis man (along with the Midnighters) is chiefly remembered for recording a trilogy of risque R&B numbers: “Work With Me, Annie,” “Annie Had a Baby” and “Annie’s Aunt Fannie.” Yet his contribution to rock and roll goes much deeper than that. With the grinding guitars, distorted sound and fervid call-and-response of those and many other recordings made for the King and Federal labels, he helped define the sound of rock and roll. He also ushered forth one of its greatest dance crazes, having written and first recorded “The Twist.” By the early 1960s, he’d charted 22 singles on the R&B charts, including “Work With Me, Annie,” which was the biggest R&B hit of 1954.
Early InfluenceHe elevated the guitar as a lead instrument on par with the saxophone and trumpet in jazz and popular music. His single-string technique established a solo style that was carried on by such contemporaries as T-Bone Walker and emulated by later disciples like B. B. King and Chuck Berry. He was influenced by country music and jazz, an odd hybrid of influences that can be heard in his recorded works, such as “Seven Come Eleven,” with the Benny Goodman Sextet. Unfortunately, his recording career lasted less than two years, as he was brought down in his prime by tuberculosis, dying on March 2, 1942, in New York.
PerformerThis man was one of the most ambitious and versatile performers of the last forty years. He straddled generations, appealing to bobbysoxers as a teen idol who wrote and recorded “Splish Splash” in 1958 and then winning over their parents as the swaggering, Sinatra-voiced adult who cut the ultimate version of “Mack the Knife” only a year later. While maintaining a prolific recording career, he subsequently launched a career in films and became a regular on Las Vegas stages. In the mid-Sixties, his career took an interesting turn when he began recording material by a new breed of songwriters. His insightful reading of Tim Hardin’s “If I Were a Carpenter” became a Top Ten hit in 1966. In 1959, he told a Life magazine reporter that he wanted to be a pop legend by the age of twenty-five, while he allegedly informed another writer that he intended to surpass Frank Sinatra.
PerformerThis group and the Beach Boys were virtually the only American groups whose successful careers were not derailed when the Beatles and the British Invasion bands hit the States in 1964. In fact, 1964 ranks as their biggest year of all, despite the insurgency from abroad, which attests to their durability and appeal among America’s teenagers. That appeal stemmed from their ability to complement spotless Italian-American doo-wop harmonies with the forceful falsetto and three-octave range of lead vocalist Frankie Valli, superb songwriting from group member Bob Gaudio, and arrangements and production that drew upon everything from Phil Spector’s “Wall of Sound” to the danceable beat of Motown’s pop/R&B singles. Notable songs include 'Big Girls Don't Cry', 'September 1963 (Oh, What a Night)', and 'Walk Like a Man'.
PerformerThis R&B and soul group deserve to be recognized both for their achievements and their longevity. On the latter count, the group performed for over four decades together without a single change in personnel - a record of constancy that is mind-boggling in the notoriously changeable world of popular music. As for their accomplishments, they cut some of Motown’s most memorable singles during the label’s creative zenith, including “Baby I Need Your Loving,” “I Can’t Help Myself,” “It’s the Same Old Song,” “Reach Out I’ll Be There,” “Standing in the Shadows of Love” and “Bernadette.”
Non-PerformerThese songwriting partners composed a string of classic hits and cherished album tracks for a variety of artists during the Sixties. A brief sampling: “Up On the Roof” (the Drifters), “One Fine Day” (the Chiffons), “I’m Into Something Good” (Herman’s Hermits), “Will You Love Me Tomorrow” (the Shirelles), “Take Good Care of My Baby” (Bobby Vee), “Chains” (the Cookies), “Don’t Bring Me Down” (the Animals), “Take a Giant Step” (the Monkees) and “Goin’ Back” (the Byrds). The prolific duo, who remained married for much of the Sixties, even tapped their babysitter to sing one of the songs they’d written, and the result was a Number One hit and a new dance craze: “The Loco-Motion,” by Little Eva.
Non-PerformerThis legendary Motown songwriting trio wrote and produced many of the songs that are most closely identified with Motown. These include “Stop! In the Name of Love” and “You Can’t Hurry Love” (the Supremes), “Heat Wave” and “Jimmy Mack” (Martha and the Vandellas), “Reach Out I’ll Be There” and “Baby I Need Your Loving” (the ____ ____), and “Can I Get a Witness” and “How Sweet It Is to Be Loved by You” (Marvin Gaye). These classics are only the tip of the iceberg, insofar as the trio’s ten-year output at Motown is concerned. In their behind-the-scenes roles as staff producers and songwriters, they were as responsible as any of the performers for Motown’s spectacular success.
PerformerFor longevity alone, this band deserves a place in the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Their heart and soul, brothers Ray and Dave Davies, have been performing together since 1963. The original lineup consisted of Ray (guitar, vocals), Dave (lead guitar, vocals), Mick Avory (drums) and Pete Quaife (bass). Only the Rolling Stones, which formed in 1962, can claim a lengthier run as an active rock and roll band. However, this band's contributions go far beyond mere tenure. Ray Davies is almost indisputably rock’s most literate, witty and insightful songwriter. Dave Davies, on the other hand, is renowned for his guitar playing. His pioneering hard-rock style was evident as far back as “You Really Got Me” in 1964 and is today considered a forerunner of heavy metal. Other nothable songs: 'Lola', 'All Day and All of the Night', and 'Waterloo Sunset'.
PerformerThis group was one of the top vocal groups of the Fifties, delivering smooth, stylized renditions of pop standards. Like the Ink Spots a decade earlier, they were the most popular black group of their time, achieving success in a crooning, middle-of-the-road style that put a soulful coat of uptown polish on pop-oriented, harmony-rich material. Their lengthy string of hits began in 1955 with “Only You” and continued till the end of the decade, including four singles that reached #1: “The Great Pretender,” “My Prayer,” “Twilight Time” and “Smoke Gets in Your Eyes.” The secret of their success had to do with their choice of material: adult ballads and standards that predated the rock and roll era, which were delivered with crisp, impeccable harmonies framed by string-laden arrangements.
Early InfluenceIf Bessie Smith is the acknowledged “Queen of the Blues,” then this woman is the undisputed “Mother of the Blues.” She fostered the blues idiom, and she did so by linking the earthy spirit of country blues with the classic style and delivery of Bessie Smith. She often played with such outstanding jazz accompanists as Fletcher Henderson, but she was more at home fronting a jugband or washboard band. She recorded over a hundred sides during her six years at Paramount. Her most memorable songs were often about the harsh realities of life in the Deep South for poor blacks, including such classics as “C.C. Rider,” “__ ______’s Black Bottom” and “Bo Weavil Blues.”
PerformerThe dulcet harmonies of these two folk rock heroes remain one of the more cherished sounds of the Sixties. The music made by the Forest Hills, New York, natives was fueled by a mutual love of early rock and roll and a search for inspiration beyond the conventional borders of folk and pop. They teamed up musically as childhood acquaintances in high school. Using the alias Tom and Jerry, they recorded an Everly Brothers-style original ('Hey, Schoolgirl') that sold 150,000 copies. Reverting to their surnames, _____ and _________ scored a folk-rock hit with “The Sounds of Silence,” one of the cornerstone songs of 1965 with its urbane, poetical lyrics and astute blend of folk and rock elements. Other hits include 'I Am a Rock', 'Mrs. Robinson', and 'Bridge Over Troubled Water'.
PerformerFrom Mod-era “maximum R&B” to rock operas and quintessential Seventies hard rock, they reigned across the decades as one of the greatest rock and roll bands of all time. At their best, they distilled the pent-up energy and chaos of rock and roll into its purest form while investing their music with literary wiles and visionary insight. In their prime they were a unit whose individual personalities fused into a larger-than-life whole. the guitarist provided the slashing guitar work and much of the material. The vocalist injected the songs with expressive muscularity and passion. The bassist anchored the band with his stoic demeanor and expert musicianship. One of the greatest of all rock and roll drummers, embodied their explosive energy and anarchic wit. Most popular songs include 'My Generation', 'Baba O'Riley', 'Won't Get Fooled Again', 'Who Are You', and 'Pinball Wizard'.

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