Basic Economics Definitions

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Can you name the Basic Economics Definitions?

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PrincipleDefinition
change in total revenue from an additional unit sold
an agreement among firms in a market about the quantities to produce or prices to charge
a graph that shows the combinations of output that the economy can possibly produce given the available factors of production and the available production technology
small incremental adjustments to a plan of action
input costs that require an outlay of money by the firm
total revenue minus total explicit cost
a monopoly that arises because a single firm can supply a good or service to an entire market at a smaller cost than could two or more firms
two goods for which an increase in the price of one leads to an increase in the demand for the other
claims that attempt to prescribe how the world should be
business practice of selling the same good at different prices to different customers
marginal product of an input times the price of the output
proposition that if private parties can bargain without cost over the allocation of resources, they can solve the problem of externalities on their own
study of how people behave in strategic situations
claims that attempt to describe the world as it is
a situation in which economic factors interacting with one another choose their best strategy given the strategies that all the other factors have chosen
a tax for which high-income taxpayers pay a smaller fraction of their income than do low-income taxpayers
increase in total cost that arises from an additional unit of input
extra taxes paid on an additional dollar of income
tax that is the same amount for every person
total revenue divided by the quantity sold
goods that are both excludable and rival in consumption
market with many buyers and sellers trading identical products so that each buyer and seller is a price taker
total cost divided by the quantity of output
property whereby long-run average total cost falls as the quantity of output increases
fall in total surplus that results from a market distortion, such as a tax
a situation in which a market left on its own fails to allocate resources efficiently
measure of the responsiveness of quantity demanded or quantity supplied to one of its determinants
PrincipleDefinition
ability to produce a good at a lower opportunity cost than another producer
idea that people should pay taxes based on the benefits they receive from government services
the uncompensated impact of one person's actions on the well-being of a bystander
a good for which, other things equal, an increase in income leads to an increase in demand
a firm that is the sole seller of a product without close substitutes
person who receives the benefit of a good but avoids paying for it
a legal maximum on the price at which a good can be sold
a legal minimum on the price at which a good can be sold
a market structure in which only a few sellers offer similar or identical products
a group of firms acting in unison
altering incentives so that people take account of the external effects of their actions
market value of all final goods and services produced within a country at a given period of time
the relationship between the quantity of inputs used to make a good and the quantity of output of that good
property whereby long-run average total cost rises as the quantity of output increases
amount paid by buyers and received by sellers of a good, computed as the price of the good times the quantity sold
a tax designed to induce private decision makers to take account of the social costs that arise from a negative externality
the equipment and structures used to produce goods and services
property whereby the marginal product of an input declines as the quantity of the input increases
goods that are neither excludable nor rival in consumption
an excess of tax revenue over government spending
a measure of how much the quantity demanded of one good responds to a change in the price of another good, computed as the percentage change in quantity demanded of the first good
increase in output that arises from an additional unit of input
idea that taxpayers with similar abilities to pay taxes should pay the same amount
ability of a single economic actor (or a small group of actors) to have a substantial influence on market prices
a tax for which high-income taxpayers pay a larger fraction of their income than do low-income taxpayers
increase in the amount of output from an additional unit of labor
goods that are rival in consumption but not excludable
PrincipleDefinition
a market structure in which many firms sell products that are similar but not identical
amount a buyer is willing to pay for a good minus the amount they buyer actually pays for it
total revenue minus total cost
fixed cost divided by the quantity of output
fluctuations in economic activity, such as employment and production
a particular 'game' between two captured prisoners that illustrates why cooperation is difficult to maintain even when it is mutually beneficial
a tax for which everyone pays the same fraction of income
a tax on goods produced abroad and sold domestically
a shortfall of tax revenue from government spending
property of a good whereby a person can be prevented from using it
idea that taxpayers with a greater ability to pay taxes should pay larger amounts
the property whereby long-run average total cost stays the same as the quantity of output changes
amount a seller is paid for a good minus the seller's cost of providing it
good for which, other things equal, an increase in income leads to decrease in demand
manner in which the burden of a tax is shared among participants in a market
taxes should be levied on a person according to how well that person can shoulder the burden
two goods for which an increase in the price of one leads to a decrease in the demand for the other
total revenue minus total cost, including both explicit and implicit costs
property whereby the benefit from an extra unit of an input decreases as the quantity of the input increases
amount a firm receives for the sale of its output
total taxes paid divided by total income
variable cost divided by the quantity of output
a parable that illustrates why common resources are used more than is desirable from the standpoint of a society as a whole
input costs that do not require an outlay of money by a firm
measure of how much the quantity demanded of a good responds to a change in consumers' income, computed as the percentage change in quantity demanded by the percentage change in in
quantity of goods and services produced from each unit of labor input

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