Biology - Genetics Quiz

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Two parents give rise to offspring that have unique combinations of genes inherited from the two parents.
Characters that don't vary categorically (eg. height, skin color)
Proteins built into the plasma membrane. Transmit signals between the ECM and cytoskeleton and indicate changes.
When an error is missed, other enzymes remove and replace incorrectly paired nucleotides.
Occurs while replicated homologs are paired during meiosis 1.
Alternative versions of a gene
Heterozygotes who though they don't show any phenotypic affects, could pass the recessive allele on to the next generation
Display of condensed chromosomes arranged in pairs. Used to screen for defective chromosomes associated with certain congenital disorders.
When neither allele is completely dominant & their phenotype is a mix between the two alleles (eg. pink flowers from white and red parents)
Inside the centrosome, consist of 9 sets of triplet microtubules arranged in a ring.
X & Y chromosomes. They determine an individual's sex. (Females=XX, Males=XY)
Mating of two variants.
Two chromosomes that have the same length, centromere, position, & staining pattern.
A netlike array of protein filaments that maintain the shape of the nucleus by mechanically supporting the nuclear envelope
Genes located near each other on the same chromosome, they tend to be inherited together
Includes the nuclear envelope, the ER, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, various types of vesicles and vacuoles, and the plasma membrane.
Inside all cells, semifluid, jellylike substance in which all subcellular components are suspended.
Humans have 46. Includes all cells of the body except gametes & their precursors.
Organism's genetic makeup, outward appearance does not display the full picture
Site of cellular respiration, metabolic process that uses oxygen to produce ATP by extracting energy from sugars, fats, and other fuels.
Many factors including genetics, and the environment collectively affect phenotype
Enzymes that untwist the double helix at the replication forks, separating the two parental strands and make them available as template strands.
Sacs made of membrane, tiny.
Perforate cell walls. Membrane-line channels filled with cytoplasm.
During Prophase I duplicated homologs are connected to each other via the synaptonemal complex. Doesn't occur in Mitosis.
2nd compartment of the mitochondrion, enclosed by the inner membrane. contains many different enzymes as well as mitochondrial DNA and ribosomes.
Large vesicles derived from the ER & golgi apparatus, integral part of cell's endomembrane system.
The lesser condensed form of chromatin that can be transcribed
Catalyses the synthesis of new DNA by adding nucleotides to the preexisting chain.
At the ends of replication bubbles, y-shaped region where particular strands of DNA are being unwound
Synthesizes discontinuously as a series of segments
A warehouse for receiving, sorting, shipping and manufacturing products of the ER.
Organism that has 2 different alleles for a gene
A group of genetically identical individuals.
During Prophase I chromosomes attach to their non-sister chromatid counterparts and exchange DNA segments, doesn't occur in Mitosis.
Reproductive cells which are the vehicles that transmit genes from one generation to the next.
The phenotype for a character most commonly observed in a natural population
All other chromosomes, humans have 46.
A single individual is the sole parent & passes copies of all its genes to its offspring without the fusion of gametes.
States that each pair of alleles segregates independently of each other pair of alleles during gamete formation
flattened, interconnected sac in chloroplast
The inactive X in each cell of a female condenses into a compact object.
Produced by mitotic division of a zygote, multicellular diploid.
Gamete cells require this, reduces # of sets of chromosomes from 2 to 1 in gametes.
Each variant for a character of an individual.
The phenotypic expression of a gene at one locus alters that of a gene at a second locus
encloses the nucleus, separating its contents from the cytoplasm. double membrane, lined by nuclear lamina.
an animal's version of a cell wall. Contains glycoproteins and other carb. molecules/
The initial nucleotide chain that is produced during DNA synthesis is a short stretch of RNA. Starts a complimentary RNA chain so that DNA synthesis can continue.
Hollow rods constructed from tubulin, grow in length by adding tubulin dimers.
stacks of thylakoids
Where replication of DNA begins.
genetic map based on recombination frequencies
Variation in phenotype depending on whether an allele came from the male or the female
Bind to the unpaired DNA strands after parental strands separate, keeping them from reconnecting
A network of fibers extending through the cytoplasm
The purpose of meiosis I, reduces the chromosomes in half.
Membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes that animal cells use to digest macromolecules.
When an incorrect segment of nucleotides is incorrect, they're cut out and refilled.
When the two alleles affect the phenotype in seperate, distinguishable ways
1/3 types of animal cell junction
Proteins that have carbs covalently bonded to them.
fluid outside chloroplast DNA
1/3 types of animal cell junction
Specialized metabolic compartment bonded by a single membrane. Cooperates with chloroplasts and mitochondrion in certain metabolic functions
1/3 types of animal cell junction
Studded with ribosomes on the outer surface of the membrane. Proteins attach to this.
Tiny complexes that make proteins according to instructions from the genes, all cells have these. Made of RNA and protein.
Protein that breaks, swivels, and rejoins DNA strands. During DNA replication, helps relieve strain in the double helix ahead of rep. fork.
Membrane enclosed structures within eukaryotic cells.
Diagram used for predicting the allele composition of offspring
Found in plants and algae, sites of photosynthesis
2nd type of life, includes both diploid & haploid stages that are multicellular.
One of a family of closely related organelles that includes chloroplasts, chromoplasts, amyloplasts, photosynthesis.
aneuploidy involving a missing chromosome
An mishap in the distribution of chromosomes by the meiotic spindle which the members of homologs dont move apart properly or don't seperate during meiosis II
2nd filial generation
An offspring whose phenotype differs from that of the true-breeding P generation parents. Also refers to the phenotype itself.
A gene's specific location along the length of a chromosome.
Catalyses the lengthening of telomeres compensating for the shortening during DNA replication.
Solid rods, short, and can for structural networks
Specialized structure in the nucleus that consist of chromosomal regions containing rRna genes and ribosomal protein. The site of rRna synthesis and ribosomal subunit assembly.
A gene located on the X chromosome
Eukaryotic chromatin that remains highly compact during interphase and is genetically not transcribed
The interior of a cell.
A framework of protein fibres extending throughout the nuclear interior
Synthesizes completely using just one primer
When subunits run in opposite directions
Outer surface lacks ribosomes. Synthesis of lipids, metabolism of carbs, detox of poison, and storage of calcium.
Organism that has a pair of identical alleles for a gene
A long cellular appendage specialized for locomotion
Genotype that is associated with a range of phenotypic possibilities due to environmental influences
proteins responsible for the first level of DNA packing in chromatin.
Exists at the point where a cross-over has occured.
An extensive network of membrane that accounts for more than half the total membrane in many euk. cells.
Type of DNA replication in which the replicated double helix consists of one old strand, derived from the parental molecule, and one newly made strand.
Infoldings of an inner membrane
A region often located near the nucleus and is considered a 'microtubule organization center'
Breeding an organism with an unknown genotype w/ one with homozygous recessive, in order to determine the genotype of the unknown
Coded information in the form of hereditary units.
Individual chromosomes that carry genes derived from 2 different parents.
Contains most of the genes in the eukaryotic cell.
Larger than microfilaments but shorter than microtubules. Specialize in bearing tension.
Family tree describing the traits of parents & children across the generations
Only produce the same variety as the parent organism, even over many generations.
Short appendage used for movement
DNA molecules that contain no genes used to protect organism's genes from cutting too far.
An additive effect of 2 or more genes on a single phenotype character.
States that two alleles of a heritable character segregate from one another during gamete formation & end up with different gametes.
Complex of DNA and protein, fits into the nucleus through an elaborate, multilevel packing system.
A gene with multiple phenotypic affects
Extracellular structure of plant cells. distinguishes them from animal cells. protects plant cells, maintains its shape, and prevents excessive uptake of water.
When one trait is dominant and the other is recessive
1st filial generation
Any cell with 2 chromosome sets, doesn't include sex cells.
Organism's outward appearance/observable traits
Multicellular haploid that's named for its production by mitosis of haploid gametes.
ordered list of genetic loci along a chromosome
Genes located on the X chromosome
At the boundary of every cell. Functions as a selective barrier that allows passage of enough oxygen, nutrients, and wastes to service the entire cell.
When an abnormal gamete unites with a normal gamete, the zygote will also have an abnormal number of a particular chromosome
Contain a single set of chromosomes. Each has a haploid number of chromosomes. Sex cells.
aneuploidy involving an extra/third chromosome
Parental generation.

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