Biology - Genetics Quiz

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Type of DNA replication in which the replicated double helix consists of one old strand, derived from the parental molecule, and one newly made strand.
When the two alleles affect the phenotype in seperate, distinguishable ways
Breeding an organism with an unknown genotype w/ one with homozygous recessive, in order to determine the genotype of the unknown
Infoldings of an inner membrane
DNA molecules that contain no genes used to protect organism's genes from cutting too far.
X & Y chromosomes. They determine an individual's sex. (Females=XX, Males=XY)
Occurs while replicated homologs are paired during meiosis 1.
Two parents give rise to offspring that have unique combinations of genes inherited from the two parents.
An mishap in the distribution of chromosomes by the meiotic spindle which the members of homologs dont move apart properly or don't seperate during meiosis II
Catalyses the lengthening of telomeres compensating for the shortening during DNA replication.
A gene's specific location along the length of a chromosome.
Eukaryotic chromatin that remains highly compact during interphase and is genetically not transcribed
1/3 types of animal cell junction
Display of condensed chromosomes arranged in pairs. Used to screen for defective chromosomes associated with certain congenital disorders.
Perforate cell walls. Membrane-line channels filled with cytoplasm.
When neither allele is completely dominant & their phenotype is a mix between the two alleles (eg. pink flowers from white and red parents)
Diagram used for predicting the allele composition of offspring
Many factors including genetics, and the environment collectively affect phenotype
Only produce the same variety as the parent organism, even over many generations.
Exists at the point where a cross-over has occured.
Genes located near each other on the same chromosome, they tend to be inherited together
Characters that don't vary categorically (eg. height, skin color)
Individual chromosomes that carry genes derived from 2 different parents.
An extensive network of membrane that accounts for more than half the total membrane in many euk. cells.
Short appendage used for movement
Contain a single set of chromosomes. Each has a haploid number of chromosomes. Sex cells.
Larger than microfilaments but shorter than microtubules. Specialize in bearing tension.
Humans have 46. Includes all cells of the body except gametes & their precursors.
Organism that has 2 different alleles for a gene
When one trait is dominant and the other is recessive
2nd compartment of the mitochondrion, enclosed by the inner membrane. contains many different enzymes as well as mitochondrial DNA and ribosomes.
Two chromosomes that have the same length, centromere, position, & staining pattern.
Gamete cells require this, reduces # of sets of chromosomes from 2 to 1 in gametes.
Protein that breaks, swivels, and rejoins DNA strands. During DNA replication, helps relieve strain in the double helix ahead of rep. fork.
ordered list of genetic loci along a chromosome
Specialized structure in the nucleus that consist of chromosomal regions containing rRna genes and ribosomal protein. The site of rRna synthesis and ribosomal subunit assembly.
Multicellular haploid that's named for its production by mitosis of haploid gametes.
1/3 types of animal cell junction
Inside the centrosome, consist of 9 sets of triplet microtubules arranged in a ring.
Each variant for a character of an individual.
Synthesizes completely using just one primer
Organism's outward appearance/observable traits
Parental generation.
A gene with multiple phenotypic affects
encloses the nucleus, separating its contents from the cytoplasm. double membrane, lined by nuclear lamina.
When an abnormal gamete unites with a normal gamete, the zygote will also have an abnormal number of a particular chromosome
A network of fibers extending through the cytoplasm
A long cellular appendage specialized for locomotion
Found in plants and algae, sites of photosynthesis
Proteins that have carbs covalently bonded to them.
A single individual is the sole parent & passes copies of all its genes to its offspring without the fusion of gametes.
an animal's version of a cell wall. Contains glycoproteins and other carb. molecules/
Genes located on the X chromosome
Enzymes that untwist the double helix at the replication forks, separating the two parental strands and make them available as template strands.
Site of cellular respiration, metabolic process that uses oxygen to produce ATP by extracting energy from sugars, fats, and other fuels.
States that two alleles of a heritable character segregate from one another during gamete formation & end up with different gametes.
Complex of DNA and protein, fits into the nucleus through an elaborate, multilevel packing system.
All other chromosomes, humans have 46.
The phenotype for a character most commonly observed in a natural population
Any cell with 2 chromosome sets, doesn't include sex cells.
Membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes that animal cells use to digest macromolecules.
Produced by mitotic division of a zygote, multicellular diploid.
Where replication of DNA begins.
Outer surface lacks ribosomes. Synthesis of lipids, metabolism of carbs, detox of poison, and storage of calcium.
Extracellular structure of plant cells. distinguishes them from animal cells. protects plant cells, maintains its shape, and prevents excessive uptake of water.
When an incorrect segment of nucleotides is incorrect, they're cut out and refilled.
A netlike array of protein filaments that maintain the shape of the nucleus by mechanically supporting the nuclear envelope
At the ends of replication bubbles, y-shaped region where particular strands of DNA are being unwound
The lesser condensed form of chromatin that can be transcribed
A framework of protein fibres extending throughout the nuclear interior
The initial nucleotide chain that is produced during DNA synthesis is a short stretch of RNA. Starts a complimentary RNA chain so that DNA synthesis can continue.
One of a family of closely related organelles that includes chloroplasts, chromoplasts, amyloplasts, photosynthesis.
flattened, interconnected sac in chloroplast
Tiny complexes that make proteins according to instructions from the genes, all cells have these. Made of RNA and protein.
States that each pair of alleles segregates independently of each other pair of alleles during gamete formation
Alternative versions of a gene
Coded information in the form of hereditary units.
When an error is missed, other enzymes remove and replace incorrectly paired nucleotides.
Heterozygotes who though they don't show any phenotypic affects, could pass the recessive allele on to the next generation
Reproductive cells which are the vehicles that transmit genes from one generation to the next.
Genotype that is associated with a range of phenotypic possibilities due to environmental influences
When subunits run in opposite directions
fluid outside chloroplast DNA
Organism's genetic makeup, outward appearance does not display the full picture
Includes the nuclear envelope, the ER, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, various types of vesicles and vacuoles, and the plasma membrane.
2nd filial generation
Variation in phenotype depending on whether an allele came from the male or the female
Synthesizes discontinuously as a series of segments
During Prophase I chromosomes attach to their non-sister chromatid counterparts and exchange DNA segments, doesn't occur in Mitosis.
1/3 types of animal cell junction
Catalyses the synthesis of new DNA by adding nucleotides to the preexisting chain.
Mating of two variants.
Contains most of the genes in the eukaryotic cell.
proteins responsible for the first level of DNA packing in chromatin.
Proteins built into the plasma membrane. Transmit signals between the ECM and cytoskeleton and indicate changes.
Specialized metabolic compartment bonded by a single membrane. Cooperates with chloroplasts and mitochondrion in certain metabolic functions
The interior of a cell.
aneuploidy involving an extra/third chromosome
A warehouse for receiving, sorting, shipping and manufacturing products of the ER.
Large vesicles derived from the ER & golgi apparatus, integral part of cell's endomembrane system.
At the boundary of every cell. Functions as a selective barrier that allows passage of enough oxygen, nutrients, and wastes to service the entire cell.
The inactive X in each cell of a female condenses into a compact object.
The purpose of meiosis I, reduces the chromosomes in half.
The phenotypic expression of a gene at one locus alters that of a gene at a second locus
A gene located on the X chromosome
genetic map based on recombination frequencies
Inside all cells, semifluid, jellylike substance in which all subcellular components are suspended.
stacks of thylakoids
An additive effect of 2 or more genes on a single phenotype character.
Sacs made of membrane, tiny.
Family tree describing the traits of parents & children across the generations
2nd type of life, includes both diploid & haploid stages that are multicellular.
Solid rods, short, and can for structural networks
Organism that has a pair of identical alleles for a gene
Membrane enclosed structures within eukaryotic cells.
An offspring whose phenotype differs from that of the true-breeding P generation parents. Also refers to the phenotype itself.
During Prophase I duplicated homologs are connected to each other via the synaptonemal complex. Doesn't occur in Mitosis.
1st filial generation
A group of genetically identical individuals.
Hollow rods constructed from tubulin, grow in length by adding tubulin dimers.
Bind to the unpaired DNA strands after parental strands separate, keeping them from reconnecting
A region often located near the nucleus and is considered a 'microtubule organization center'
Studded with ribosomes on the outer surface of the membrane. Proteins attach to this.
aneuploidy involving a missing chromosome

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