Biology - Genetics Quiz

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During Prophase I chromosomes attach to their non-sister chromatid counterparts and exchange DNA segments, doesn't occur in Mitosis.
States that each pair of alleles segregates independently of each other pair of alleles during gamete formation
ordered list of genetic loci along a chromosome
During Prophase I duplicated homologs are connected to each other via the synaptonemal complex. Doesn't occur in Mitosis.
2nd type of life, includes both diploid & haploid stages that are multicellular.
Synthesizes completely using just one primer
Site of cellular respiration, metabolic process that uses oxygen to produce ATP by extracting energy from sugars, fats, and other fuels.
Bind to the unpaired DNA strands after parental strands separate, keeping them from reconnecting
Catalyses the synthesis of new DNA by adding nucleotides to the preexisting chain.
Proteins that have carbs covalently bonded to them.
X & Y chromosomes. They determine an individual's sex. (Females=XX, Males=XY)
Specialized metabolic compartment bonded by a single membrane. Cooperates with chloroplasts and mitochondrion in certain metabolic functions
Organism's outward appearance/observable traits
Organism that has 2 different alleles for a gene
2nd compartment of the mitochondrion, enclosed by the inner membrane. contains many different enzymes as well as mitochondrial DNA and ribosomes.
Specialized structure in the nucleus that consist of chromosomal regions containing rRna genes and ribosomal protein. The site of rRna synthesis and ribosomal subunit assembly.
Extracellular structure of plant cells. distinguishes them from animal cells. protects plant cells, maintains its shape, and prevents excessive uptake of water.
The phenotype for a character most commonly observed in a natural population
At the ends of replication bubbles, y-shaped region where particular strands of DNA are being unwound
Outer surface lacks ribosomes. Synthesis of lipids, metabolism of carbs, detox of poison, and storage of calcium.
Membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes that animal cells use to digest macromolecules.
The inactive X in each cell of a female condenses into a compact object.
A warehouse for receiving, sorting, shipping and manufacturing products of the ER.
Eukaryotic chromatin that remains highly compact during interphase and is genetically not transcribed
Synthesizes discontinuously as a series of segments
When an incorrect segment of nucleotides is incorrect, they're cut out and refilled.
A network of fibers extending through the cytoplasm
The lesser condensed form of chromatin that can be transcribed
aneuploidy involving an extra/third chromosome
Each variant for a character of an individual.
Heterozygotes who though they don't show any phenotypic affects, could pass the recessive allele on to the next generation
1st filial generation
Two chromosomes that have the same length, centromere, position, & staining pattern.
Short appendage used for movement
Multicellular haploid that's named for its production by mitosis of haploid gametes.
DNA molecules that contain no genes used to protect organism's genes from cutting too far.
1/3 types of animal cell junction
Coded information in the form of hereditary units.
1/3 types of animal cell junction
Diagram used for predicting the allele composition of offspring
The interior of a cell.
aneuploidy involving a missing chromosome
Humans have 46. Includes all cells of the body except gametes & their precursors.
Individual chromosomes that carry genes derived from 2 different parents.
The purpose of meiosis I, reduces the chromosomes in half.
When subunits run in opposite directions
One of a family of closely related organelles that includes chloroplasts, chromoplasts, amyloplasts, photosynthesis.
A framework of protein fibres extending throughout the nuclear interior
Occurs while replicated homologs are paired during meiosis 1.
Family tree describing the traits of parents & children across the generations
Display of condensed chromosomes arranged in pairs. Used to screen for defective chromosomes associated with certain congenital disorders.
Larger than microfilaments but shorter than microtubules. Specialize in bearing tension.
Proteins built into the plasma membrane. Transmit signals between the ECM and cytoskeleton and indicate changes.
Found in plants and algae, sites of photosynthesis
Studded with ribosomes on the outer surface of the membrane. Proteins attach to this.
An additive effect of 2 or more genes on a single phenotype character.
Any cell with 2 chromosome sets, doesn't include sex cells.
fluid outside chloroplast DNA
Produced by mitotic division of a zygote, multicellular diploid.
Tiny complexes that make proteins according to instructions from the genes, all cells have these. Made of RNA and protein.
Inside all cells, semifluid, jellylike substance in which all subcellular components are suspended.
Genes located near each other on the same chromosome, they tend to be inherited together
Exists at the point where a cross-over has occured.
Contains most of the genes in the eukaryotic cell.
A region often located near the nucleus and is considered a 'microtubule organization center'
flattened, interconnected sac in chloroplast
Reproductive cells which are the vehicles that transmit genes from one generation to the next.
A gene's specific location along the length of a chromosome.
Large vesicles derived from the ER & golgi apparatus, integral part of cell's endomembrane system.
Parental generation.
Genes located on the X chromosome
All other chromosomes, humans have 46.
1/3 types of animal cell junction
A gene located on the X chromosome
Protein that breaks, swivels, and rejoins DNA strands. During DNA replication, helps relieve strain in the double helix ahead of rep. fork.
A gene with multiple phenotypic affects
The phenotypic expression of a gene at one locus alters that of a gene at a second locus
At the boundary of every cell. Functions as a selective barrier that allows passage of enough oxygen, nutrients, and wastes to service the entire cell.
Type of DNA replication in which the replicated double helix consists of one old strand, derived from the parental molecule, and one newly made strand.
When an abnormal gamete unites with a normal gamete, the zygote will also have an abnormal number of a particular chromosome
When neither allele is completely dominant & their phenotype is a mix between the two alleles (eg. pink flowers from white and red parents)
A group of genetically identical individuals.
States that two alleles of a heritable character segregate from one another during gamete formation & end up with different gametes.
genetic map based on recombination frequencies
When an error is missed, other enzymes remove and replace incorrectly paired nucleotides.
Many factors including genetics, and the environment collectively affect phenotype
When one trait is dominant and the other is recessive
Inside the centrosome, consist of 9 sets of triplet microtubules arranged in a ring.
Enzymes that untwist the double helix at the replication forks, separating the two parental strands and make them available as template strands.
Genotype that is associated with a range of phenotypic possibilities due to environmental influences
Variation in phenotype depending on whether an allele came from the male or the female
Perforate cell walls. Membrane-line channels filled with cytoplasm.
Catalyses the lengthening of telomeres compensating for the shortening during DNA replication.
Solid rods, short, and can for structural networks
An offspring whose phenotype differs from that of the true-breeding P generation parents. Also refers to the phenotype itself.
Sacs made of membrane, tiny.
Two parents give rise to offspring that have unique combinations of genes inherited from the two parents.
Where replication of DNA begins.
Breeding an organism with an unknown genotype w/ one with homozygous recessive, in order to determine the genotype of the unknown
Organism that has a pair of identical alleles for a gene
An mishap in the distribution of chromosomes by the meiotic spindle which the members of homologs dont move apart properly or don't seperate during meiosis II
A single individual is the sole parent & passes copies of all its genes to its offspring without the fusion of gametes.
Mating of two variants.
2nd filial generation
Gamete cells require this, reduces # of sets of chromosomes from 2 to 1 in gametes.
Organism's genetic makeup, outward appearance does not display the full picture
Complex of DNA and protein, fits into the nucleus through an elaborate, multilevel packing system.
encloses the nucleus, separating its contents from the cytoplasm. double membrane, lined by nuclear lamina.
Contain a single set of chromosomes. Each has a haploid number of chromosomes. Sex cells.
proteins responsible for the first level of DNA packing in chromatin.
Characters that don't vary categorically (eg. height, skin color)
A netlike array of protein filaments that maintain the shape of the nucleus by mechanically supporting the nuclear envelope
Only produce the same variety as the parent organism, even over many generations.
An extensive network of membrane that accounts for more than half the total membrane in many euk. cells.
Alternative versions of a gene
an animal's version of a cell wall. Contains glycoproteins and other carb. molecules/
Includes the nuclear envelope, the ER, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, various types of vesicles and vacuoles, and the plasma membrane.
Hollow rods constructed from tubulin, grow in length by adding tubulin dimers.
The initial nucleotide chain that is produced during DNA synthesis is a short stretch of RNA. Starts a complimentary RNA chain so that DNA synthesis can continue.
Infoldings of an inner membrane
Membrane enclosed structures within eukaryotic cells.
A long cellular appendage specialized for locomotion
When the two alleles affect the phenotype in seperate, distinguishable ways
stacks of thylakoids

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