Biology - Genetics Quiz

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Can you name the Biology 2nd exam?

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An mishap in the distribution of chromosomes by the meiotic spindle which the members of homologs dont move apart properly or don't seperate during meiosis II
Only produce the same variety as the parent organism, even over many generations.
encloses the nucleus, separating its contents from the cytoplasm. double membrane, lined by nuclear lamina.
Breeding an organism with an unknown genotype w/ one with homozygous recessive, in order to determine the genotype of the unknown
Each variant for a character of an individual.
proteins responsible for the first level of DNA packing in chromatin.
During Prophase I duplicated homologs are connected to each other via the synaptonemal complex. Doesn't occur in Mitosis.
Short appendage used for movement
1/3 types of animal cell junction
At the ends of replication bubbles, y-shaped region where particular strands of DNA are being unwound
The purpose of meiosis I, reduces the chromosomes in half.
Organism's outward appearance/observable traits
When an error is missed, other enzymes remove and replace incorrectly paired nucleotides.
Contains most of the genes in the eukaryotic cell.
DNA molecules that contain no genes used to protect organism's genes from cutting too far.
A gene with multiple phenotypic affects
aneuploidy involving a missing chromosome
Bind to the unpaired DNA strands after parental strands separate, keeping them from reconnecting
Membrane enclosed structures within eukaryotic cells.
Genes located near each other on the same chromosome, they tend to be inherited together
Characters that don't vary categorically (eg. height, skin color)
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A long cellular appendage specialized for locomotion
Mating of two variants.
Individual chromosomes that carry genes derived from 2 different parents.
When the two alleles affect the phenotype in seperate, distinguishable ways
Two chromosomes that have the same length, centromere, position, & staining pattern.
Infoldings of an inner membrane
Two parents give rise to offspring that have unique combinations of genes inherited from the two parents.
ordered list of genetic loci along a chromosome
Any cell with 2 chromosome sets, doesn't include sex cells.
Type of DNA replication in which the replicated double helix consists of one old strand, derived from the parental molecule, and one newly made strand.
Synthesizes completely using just one primer
All other chromosomes, humans have 46.
Multicellular haploid that's named for its production by mitosis of haploid gametes.
Solid rods, short, and can for structural networks
When neither allele is completely dominant & their phenotype is a mix between the two alleles (eg. pink flowers from white and red parents)
Parental generation.
Outer surface lacks ribosomes. Synthesis of lipids, metabolism of carbs, detox of poison, and storage of calcium.
Family tree describing the traits of parents & children across the generations
Larger than microfilaments but shorter than microtubules. Specialize in bearing tension.
When subunits run in opposite directions
An additive effect of 2 or more genes on a single phenotype character.
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Enzymes that untwist the double helix at the replication forks, separating the two parental strands and make them available as template strands.
1st filial generation
1/3 types of animal cell junction
Inside the centrosome, consist of 9 sets of triplet microtubules arranged in a ring.
Inside all cells, semifluid, jellylike substance in which all subcellular components are suspended.
Specialized structure in the nucleus that consist of chromosomal regions containing rRna genes and ribosomal protein. The site of rRna synthesis and ribosomal subunit assembly.
Many factors including genetics, and the environment collectively affect phenotype
Membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes that animal cells use to digest macromolecules.
Catalyses the synthesis of new DNA by adding nucleotides to the preexisting chain.
2nd type of life, includes both diploid & haploid stages that are multicellular.
Where replication of DNA begins.
A region often located near the nucleus and is considered a 'microtubule organization center'
Studded with ribosomes on the outer surface of the membrane. Proteins attach to this.
Occurs while replicated homologs are paired during meiosis 1.
When an abnormal gamete unites with a normal gamete, the zygote will also have an abnormal number of a particular chromosome
A gene located on the X chromosome
Genes located on the X chromosome
The interior of a cell.
A gene's specific location along the length of a chromosome.
Includes the nuclear envelope, the ER, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, various types of vesicles and vacuoles, and the plasma membrane.
A framework of protein fibres extending throughout the nuclear interior
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Contain a single set of chromosomes. Each has a haploid number of chromosomes. Sex cells.
genetic map based on recombination frequencies
Variation in phenotype depending on whether an allele came from the male or the female
2nd compartment of the mitochondrion, enclosed by the inner membrane. contains many different enzymes as well as mitochondrial DNA and ribosomes.
When one trait is dominant and the other is recessive
2nd filial generation
Organism that has 2 different alleles for a gene
Display of condensed chromosomes arranged in pairs. Used to screen for defective chromosomes associated with certain congenital disorders.
Organism's genetic makeup, outward appearance does not display the full picture
Synthesizes discontinuously as a series of segments
Organism that has a pair of identical alleles for a gene
States that each pair of alleles segregates independently of each other pair of alleles during gamete formation
When an incorrect segment of nucleotides is incorrect, they're cut out and refilled.
A warehouse for receiving, sorting, shipping and manufacturing products of the ER.
During Prophase I chromosomes attach to their non-sister chromatid counterparts and exchange DNA segments, doesn't occur in Mitosis.
The phenotypic expression of a gene at one locus alters that of a gene at a second locus
Proteins that have carbs covalently bonded to them.
Catalyses the lengthening of telomeres compensating for the shortening during DNA replication.
Produced by mitotic division of a zygote, multicellular diploid.
At the boundary of every cell. Functions as a selective barrier that allows passage of enough oxygen, nutrients, and wastes to service the entire cell.
1/3 types of animal cell junction
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Coded information in the form of hereditary units.
aneuploidy involving an extra/third chromosome
An extensive network of membrane that accounts for more than half the total membrane in many euk. cells.
fluid outside chloroplast DNA
The initial nucleotide chain that is produced during DNA synthesis is a short stretch of RNA. Starts a complimentary RNA chain so that DNA synthesis can continue.
Humans have 46. Includes all cells of the body except gametes & their precursors.
Large vesicles derived from the ER & golgi apparatus, integral part of cell's endomembrane system.
Complex of DNA and protein, fits into the nucleus through an elaborate, multilevel packing system.
A netlike array of protein filaments that maintain the shape of the nucleus by mechanically supporting the nuclear envelope
Extracellular structure of plant cells. distinguishes them from animal cells. protects plant cells, maintains its shape, and prevents excessive uptake of water.
Exists at the point where a cross-over has occured.
an animal's version of a cell wall. Contains glycoproteins and other carb. molecules/
The inactive X in each cell of a female condenses into a compact object.
An offspring whose phenotype differs from that of the true-breeding P generation parents. Also refers to the phenotype itself.
Genotype that is associated with a range of phenotypic possibilities due to environmental influences
Sacs made of membrane, tiny.
Heterozygotes who though they don't show any phenotypic affects, could pass the recessive allele on to the next generation
Protein that breaks, swivels, and rejoins DNA strands. During DNA replication, helps relieve strain in the double helix ahead of rep. fork.
Hollow rods constructed from tubulin, grow in length by adding tubulin dimers.
Reproductive cells which are the vehicles that transmit genes from one generation to the next.
Eukaryotic chromatin that remains highly compact during interphase and is genetically not transcribed
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Specialized metabolic compartment bonded by a single membrane. Cooperates with chloroplasts and mitochondrion in certain metabolic functions
The phenotype for a character most commonly observed in a natural population
A group of genetically identical individuals.
States that two alleles of a heritable character segregate from one another during gamete formation & end up with different gametes.
Diagram used for predicting the allele composition of offspring
Found in plants and algae, sites of photosynthesis
stacks of thylakoids
Alternative versions of a gene
A single individual is the sole parent & passes copies of all its genes to its offspring without the fusion of gametes.
Site of cellular respiration, metabolic process that uses oxygen to produce ATP by extracting energy from sugars, fats, and other fuels.
Gamete cells require this, reduces # of sets of chromosomes from 2 to 1 in gametes.
One of a family of closely related organelles that includes chloroplasts, chromoplasts, amyloplasts, photosynthesis.
Perforate cell walls. Membrane-line channels filled with cytoplasm.
Proteins built into the plasma membrane. Transmit signals between the ECM and cytoskeleton and indicate changes.
A network of fibers extending through the cytoplasm
X & Y chromosomes. They determine an individual's sex. (Females=XX, Males=XY)
flattened, interconnected sac in chloroplast
Tiny complexes that make proteins according to instructions from the genes, all cells have these. Made of RNA and protein.
The lesser condensed form of chromatin that can be transcribed

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