Biology - Genetics Quiz

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Display of condensed chromosomes arranged in pairs. Used to screen for defective chromosomes associated with certain congenital disorders.
Diagram used for predicting the allele composition of offspring
Bind to the unpaired DNA strands after parental strands separate, keeping them from reconnecting
Individual chromosomes that carry genes derived from 2 different parents.
All other chromosomes, humans have 46.
When an incorrect segment of nucleotides is incorrect, they're cut out and refilled.
Sacs made of membrane, tiny.
1st filial generation
Inside all cells, semifluid, jellylike substance in which all subcellular components are suspended.
Genotype that is associated with a range of phenotypic possibilities due to environmental influences
Each variant for a character of an individual.
aneuploidy involving an extra/third chromosome
Proteins built into the plasma membrane. Transmit signals between the ECM and cytoskeleton and indicate changes.
Contain a single set of chromosomes. Each has a haploid number of chromosomes. Sex cells.
The lesser condensed form of chromatin that can be transcribed
Mating of two variants.
Catalyses the lengthening of telomeres compensating for the shortening during DNA replication.
At the boundary of every cell. Functions as a selective barrier that allows passage of enough oxygen, nutrients, and wastes to service the entire cell.
Where replication of DNA begins.
Heterozygotes who though they don't show any phenotypic affects, could pass the recessive allele on to the next generation
A warehouse for receiving, sorting, shipping and manufacturing products of the ER.
An additive effect of 2 or more genes on a single phenotype character.
During Prophase I chromosomes attach to their non-sister chromatid counterparts and exchange DNA segments, doesn't occur in Mitosis.
Infoldings of an inner membrane
When one trait is dominant and the other is recessive
Family tree describing the traits of parents & children across the generations
One of a family of closely related organelles that includes chloroplasts, chromoplasts, amyloplasts, photosynthesis.
Humans have 46. Includes all cells of the body except gametes & their precursors.
Breeding an organism with an unknown genotype w/ one with homozygous recessive, in order to determine the genotype of the unknown
1/3 types of animal cell junction
Type of DNA replication in which the replicated double helix consists of one old strand, derived from the parental molecule, and one newly made strand.
The phenotypic expression of a gene at one locus alters that of a gene at a second locus
An extensive network of membrane that accounts for more than half the total membrane in many euk. cells.
Two chromosomes that have the same length, centromere, position, & staining pattern.
Catalyses the synthesis of new DNA by adding nucleotides to the preexisting chain.
An mishap in the distribution of chromosomes by the meiotic spindle which the members of homologs dont move apart properly or don't seperate during meiosis II
Exists at the point where a cross-over has occured.
When an error is missed, other enzymes remove and replace incorrectly paired nucleotides.
Solid rods, short, and can for structural networks
Hollow rods constructed from tubulin, grow in length by adding tubulin dimers.
Inside the centrosome, consist of 9 sets of triplet microtubules arranged in a ring.
Alternative versions of a gene
Enzymes that untwist the double helix at the replication forks, separating the two parental strands and make them available as template strands.
Membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes that animal cells use to digest macromolecules.
Variation in phenotype depending on whether an allele came from the male or the female
2nd compartment of the mitochondrion, enclosed by the inner membrane. contains many different enzymes as well as mitochondrial DNA and ribosomes.
genetic map based on recombination frequencies
Short appendage used for movement
A gene with multiple phenotypic affects
A long cellular appendage specialized for locomotion
A region often located near the nucleus and is considered a 'microtubule organization center'
fluid outside chloroplast DNA
Synthesizes completely using just one primer
When neither allele is completely dominant & their phenotype is a mix between the two alleles (eg. pink flowers from white and red parents)
1/3 types of animal cell junction
2nd type of life, includes both diploid & haploid stages that are multicellular.
Coded information in the form of hereditary units.
Many factors including genetics, and the environment collectively affect phenotype
2nd filial generation
A group of genetically identical individuals.
ordered list of genetic loci along a chromosome
Parental generation.
Occurs while replicated homologs are paired during meiosis 1.
Protein that breaks, swivels, and rejoins DNA strands. During DNA replication, helps relieve strain in the double helix ahead of rep. fork.
Complex of DNA and protein, fits into the nucleus through an elaborate, multilevel packing system.
Outer surface lacks ribosomes. Synthesis of lipids, metabolism of carbs, detox of poison, and storage of calcium.
Studded with ribosomes on the outer surface of the membrane. Proteins attach to this.
During Prophase I duplicated homologs are connected to each other via the synaptonemal complex. Doesn't occur in Mitosis.
Specialized structure in the nucleus that consist of chromosomal regions containing rRna genes and ribosomal protein. The site of rRna synthesis and ribosomal subunit assembly.
Extracellular structure of plant cells. distinguishes them from animal cells. protects plant cells, maintains its shape, and prevents excessive uptake of water.
proteins responsible for the first level of DNA packing in chromatin.
Organism that has 2 different alleles for a gene
X & Y chromosomes. They determine an individual's sex. (Females=XX, Males=XY)
Specialized metabolic compartment bonded by a single membrane. Cooperates with chloroplasts and mitochondrion in certain metabolic functions
States that each pair of alleles segregates independently of each other pair of alleles during gamete formation
stacks of thylakoids
At the ends of replication bubbles, y-shaped region where particular strands of DNA are being unwound
an animal's version of a cell wall. Contains glycoproteins and other carb. molecules/
Gamete cells require this, reduces # of sets of chromosomes from 2 to 1 in gametes.
Genes located on the X chromosome
Reproductive cells which are the vehicles that transmit genes from one generation to the next.
Characters that don't vary categorically (eg. height, skin color)
Contains most of the genes in the eukaryotic cell.
Site of cellular respiration, metabolic process that uses oxygen to produce ATP by extracting energy from sugars, fats, and other fuels.
aneuploidy involving a missing chromosome
Proteins that have carbs covalently bonded to them.
The initial nucleotide chain that is produced during DNA synthesis is a short stretch of RNA. Starts a complimentary RNA chain so that DNA synthesis can continue.
Larger than microfilaments but shorter than microtubules. Specialize in bearing tension.
Eukaryotic chromatin that remains highly compact during interphase and is genetically not transcribed
A gene's specific location along the length of a chromosome.
Produced by mitotic division of a zygote, multicellular diploid.
An offspring whose phenotype differs from that of the true-breeding P generation parents. Also refers to the phenotype itself.
When an abnormal gamete unites with a normal gamete, the zygote will also have an abnormal number of a particular chromosome
Two parents give rise to offspring that have unique combinations of genes inherited from the two parents.
Genes located near each other on the same chromosome, they tend to be inherited together
Perforate cell walls. Membrane-line channels filled with cytoplasm.
The phenotype for a character most commonly observed in a natural population
Organism's outward appearance/observable traits
The purpose of meiosis I, reduces the chromosomes in half.
The interior of a cell.
States that two alleles of a heritable character segregate from one another during gamete formation & end up with different gametes.
A gene located on the X chromosome
Large vesicles derived from the ER & golgi apparatus, integral part of cell's endomembrane system.
Found in plants and algae, sites of photosynthesis
A network of fibers extending through the cytoplasm
1/3 types of animal cell junction
flattened, interconnected sac in chloroplast
Only produce the same variety as the parent organism, even over many generations.
When the two alleles affect the phenotype in seperate, distinguishable ways
Synthesizes discontinuously as a series of segments
encloses the nucleus, separating its contents from the cytoplasm. double membrane, lined by nuclear lamina.
DNA molecules that contain no genes used to protect organism's genes from cutting too far.
Includes the nuclear envelope, the ER, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, various types of vesicles and vacuoles, and the plasma membrane.
Organism that has a pair of identical alleles for a gene
When subunits run in opposite directions
A framework of protein fibres extending throughout the nuclear interior
Membrane enclosed structures within eukaryotic cells.
A netlike array of protein filaments that maintain the shape of the nucleus by mechanically supporting the nuclear envelope
Tiny complexes that make proteins according to instructions from the genes, all cells have these. Made of RNA and protein.
Organism's genetic makeup, outward appearance does not display the full picture
The inactive X in each cell of a female condenses into a compact object.
Multicellular haploid that's named for its production by mitosis of haploid gametes.
A single individual is the sole parent & passes copies of all its genes to its offspring without the fusion of gametes.
Any cell with 2 chromosome sets, doesn't include sex cells.

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