Biology - Genetics Quiz

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Can you name the Biology 2nd exam?

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2nd compartment of the mitochondrion, enclosed by the inner membrane. contains many different enzymes as well as mitochondrial DNA and ribosomes.
Contain a single set of chromosomes. Each has a haploid number of chromosomes. Sex cells.
X & Y chromosomes. They determine an individual's sex. (Females=XX, Males=XY)
1/3 types of animal cell junction
Large vesicles derived from the ER & golgi apparatus, integral part of cell's endomembrane system.
The lesser condensed form of chromatin that can be transcribed
The inactive X in each cell of a female condenses into a compact object.
When an error is missed, other enzymes remove and replace incorrectly paired nucleotides.
Membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes that animal cells use to digest macromolecules.
A single individual is the sole parent & passes copies of all its genes to its offspring without the fusion of gametes.
Organism that has 2 different alleles for a gene
Specialized structure in the nucleus that consist of chromosomal regions containing rRna genes and ribosomal protein. The site of rRna synthesis and ribosomal subunit assembly.
Heterozygotes who though they don't show any phenotypic affects, could pass the recessive allele on to the next generation
Genes located near each other on the same chromosome, they tend to be inherited together
Produced by mitotic division of a zygote, multicellular diploid.
Sacs made of membrane, tiny.
When neither allele is completely dominant & their phenotype is a mix between the two alleles (eg. pink flowers from white and red parents)
Only produce the same variety as the parent organism, even over many generations.
genetic map based on recombination frequencies
flattened, interconnected sac in chloroplast
Exists at the point where a cross-over has occured.
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Diagram used for predicting the allele composition of offspring
stacks of thylakoids
Extracellular structure of plant cells. distinguishes them from animal cells. protects plant cells, maintains its shape, and prevents excessive uptake of water.
An additive effect of 2 or more genes on a single phenotype character.
Characters that don't vary categorically (eg. height, skin color)
Many factors including genetics, and the environment collectively affect phenotype
The purpose of meiosis I, reduces the chromosomes in half.
A network of fibers extending through the cytoplasm
Mating of two variants.
Studded with ribosomes on the outer surface of the membrane. Proteins attach to this.
aneuploidy involving a missing chromosome
Breeding an organism with an unknown genotype w/ one with homozygous recessive, in order to determine the genotype of the unknown
Genotype that is associated with a range of phenotypic possibilities due to environmental influences
Organism's genetic makeup, outward appearance does not display the full picture
Infoldings of an inner membrane
One of a family of closely related organelles that includes chloroplasts, chromoplasts, amyloplasts, photosynthesis.
Organism that has a pair of identical alleles for a gene
1/3 types of animal cell junction
A framework of protein fibres extending throughout the nuclear interior
Humans have 46. Includes all cells of the body except gametes & their precursors.
Reproductive cells which are the vehicles that transmit genes from one generation to the next.
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Synthesizes discontinuously as a series of segments
Found in plants and algae, sites of photosynthesis
Catalyses the synthesis of new DNA by adding nucleotides to the preexisting chain.
A long cellular appendage specialized for locomotion
The initial nucleotide chain that is produced during DNA synthesis is a short stretch of RNA. Starts a complimentary RNA chain so that DNA synthesis can continue.
Complex of DNA and protein, fits into the nucleus through an elaborate, multilevel packing system.
Eukaryotic chromatin that remains highly compact during interphase and is genetically not transcribed
A gene with multiple phenotypic affects
Individual chromosomes that carry genes derived from 2 different parents.
A netlike array of protein filaments that maintain the shape of the nucleus by mechanically supporting the nuclear envelope
Inside the centrosome, consist of 9 sets of triplet microtubules arranged in a ring.
States that each pair of alleles segregates independently of each other pair of alleles during gamete formation
When an incorrect segment of nucleotides is incorrect, they're cut out and refilled.
The phenotype for a character most commonly observed in a natural population
When an abnormal gamete unites with a normal gamete, the zygote will also have an abnormal number of a particular chromosome
Any cell with 2 chromosome sets, doesn't include sex cells.
The interior of a cell.
Type of DNA replication in which the replicated double helix consists of one old strand, derived from the parental molecule, and one newly made strand.
Gamete cells require this, reduces # of sets of chromosomes from 2 to 1 in gametes.
1st filial generation
At the ends of replication bubbles, y-shaped region where particular strands of DNA are being unwound
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Inside all cells, semifluid, jellylike substance in which all subcellular components are suspended.
Catalyses the lengthening of telomeres compensating for the shortening during DNA replication.
DNA molecules that contain no genes used to protect organism's genes from cutting too far.
A gene's specific location along the length of a chromosome.
Two parents give rise to offspring that have unique combinations of genes inherited from the two parents.
An offspring whose phenotype differs from that of the true-breeding P generation parents. Also refers to the phenotype itself.
States that two alleles of a heritable character segregate from one another during gamete formation & end up with different gametes.
Proteins built into the plasma membrane. Transmit signals between the ECM and cytoskeleton and indicate changes.
Genes located on the X chromosome
During Prophase I chromosomes attach to their non-sister chromatid counterparts and exchange DNA segments, doesn't occur in Mitosis.
2nd filial generation
Perforate cell walls. Membrane-line channels filled with cytoplasm.
All other chromosomes, humans have 46.
aneuploidy involving an extra/third chromosome
fluid outside chloroplast DNA
Parental generation.
Organism's outward appearance/observable traits
Synthesizes completely using just one primer
An mishap in the distribution of chromosomes by the meiotic spindle which the members of homologs dont move apart properly or don't seperate during meiosis II
Enzymes that untwist the double helix at the replication forks, separating the two parental strands and make them available as template strands.
A group of genetically identical individuals.
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Each variant for a character of an individual.
Hollow rods constructed from tubulin, grow in length by adding tubulin dimers.
The phenotypic expression of a gene at one locus alters that of a gene at a second locus
Alternative versions of a gene
Contains most of the genes in the eukaryotic cell.
At the boundary of every cell. Functions as a selective barrier that allows passage of enough oxygen, nutrients, and wastes to service the entire cell.
Tiny complexes that make proteins according to instructions from the genes, all cells have these. Made of RNA and protein.
2nd type of life, includes both diploid & haploid stages that are multicellular.
Family tree describing the traits of parents & children across the generations
An extensive network of membrane that accounts for more than half the total membrane in many euk. cells.
Outer surface lacks ribosomes. Synthesis of lipids, metabolism of carbs, detox of poison, and storage of calcium.
Membrane enclosed structures within eukaryotic cells.
When one trait is dominant and the other is recessive
Where replication of DNA begins.
ordered list of genetic loci along a chromosome
Display of condensed chromosomes arranged in pairs. Used to screen for defective chromosomes associated with certain congenital disorders.
1/3 types of animal cell junction
During Prophase I duplicated homologs are connected to each other via the synaptonemal complex. Doesn't occur in Mitosis.
Solid rods, short, and can for structural networks
Two chromosomes that have the same length, centromere, position, & staining pattern.
When subunits run in opposite directions
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Larger than microfilaments but shorter than microtubules. Specialize in bearing tension.
encloses the nucleus, separating its contents from the cytoplasm. double membrane, lined by nuclear lamina.
When the two alleles affect the phenotype in seperate, distinguishable ways
Site of cellular respiration, metabolic process that uses oxygen to produce ATP by extracting energy from sugars, fats, and other fuels.
Short appendage used for movement
Protein that breaks, swivels, and rejoins DNA strands. During DNA replication, helps relieve strain in the double helix ahead of rep. fork.
Includes the nuclear envelope, the ER, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, various types of vesicles and vacuoles, and the plasma membrane.
an animal's version of a cell wall. Contains glycoproteins and other carb. molecules/
Coded information in the form of hereditary units.
Bind to the unpaired DNA strands after parental strands separate, keeping them from reconnecting
Specialized metabolic compartment bonded by a single membrane. Cooperates with chloroplasts and mitochondrion in certain metabolic functions
A warehouse for receiving, sorting, shipping and manufacturing products of the ER.
Variation in phenotype depending on whether an allele came from the male or the female
A gene located on the X chromosome
Proteins that have carbs covalently bonded to them.
Occurs while replicated homologs are paired during meiosis 1.
A region often located near the nucleus and is considered a 'microtubule organization center'
Multicellular haploid that's named for its production by mitosis of haploid gametes.
proteins responsible for the first level of DNA packing in chromatin.

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