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Reproductive cells which are the vehicles that transmit genes from one generation to the next.
Parental generation.
Contain a single set of chromosomes. Each has a haploid number of chromosomes. Sex cells.
Catalyses the lengthening of telomeres compensating for the shortening during DNA replication.
Two chromosomes that have the same length, centromere, position, & staining pattern.
When an error is missed, other enzymes remove and replace incorrectly paired nucleotides.
One of a family of closely related organelles that includes chloroplasts, chromoplasts, amyloplasts, photosynthesis.
A network of fibers extending through the cytoplasm
1/3 types of animal cell junction
Heterozygotes who though they don't show any phenotypic affects, could pass the recessive allele on to the next generation
A framework of protein fibres extending throughout the nuclear interior
Synthesizes discontinuously as a series of segments
Synthesizes completely using just one primer
A single individual is the sole parent & passes copies of all its genes to its offspring without the fusion of gametes.
Individual chromosomes that carry genes derived from 2 different parents.
The interior of a cell.
A gene with multiple phenotypic affects
Organism's outward appearance/observable traits
Eukaryotic chromatin that remains highly compact during interphase and is genetically not transcribed
Diagram used for predicting the allele composition of offspring
Protein that breaks, swivels, and rejoins DNA strands. During DNA replication, helps relieve strain in the double helix ahead of rep. fork.
The initial nucleotide chain that is produced during DNA synthesis is a short stretch of RNA. Starts a complimentary RNA chain so that DNA synthesis can continue.
Display of condensed chromosomes arranged in pairs. Used to screen for defective chromosomes associated with certain congenital disorders.
Gamete cells require this, reduces # of sets of chromosomes from 2 to 1 in gametes.
During Prophase I duplicated homologs are connected to each other via the synaptonemal complex. Doesn't occur in Mitosis.
Multicellular haploid that's named for its production by mitosis of haploid gametes.
Genes located near each other on the same chromosome, they tend to be inherited together
When an abnormal gamete unites with a normal gamete, the zygote will also have an abnormal number of a particular chromosome
Two parents give rise to offspring that have unique combinations of genes inherited from the two parents.
When an incorrect segment of nucleotides is incorrect, they're cut out and refilled.
Large vesicles derived from the ER & golgi apparatus, integral part of cell's endomembrane system.
an animal's version of a cell wall. Contains glycoproteins and other carb. molecules/
When the two alleles affect the phenotype in seperate, distinguishable ways
Complex of DNA and protein, fits into the nucleus through an elaborate, multilevel packing system.
An mishap in the distribution of chromosomes by the meiotic spindle which the members of homologs dont move apart properly or don't seperate during meiosis II
Larger than microfilaments but shorter than microtubules. Specialize in bearing tension.
Inside all cells, semifluid, jellylike substance in which all subcellular components are suspended.
Mating of two variants.
Sacs made of membrane, tiny.
proteins responsible for the first level of DNA packing in chromatin.
2nd filial generation
A region often located near the nucleus and is considered a 'microtubule organization center'
During Prophase I chromosomes attach to their non-sister chromatid counterparts and exchange DNA segments, doesn't occur in Mitosis.
aneuploidy involving an extra/third chromosome
genetic map based on recombination frequencies
2nd compartment of the mitochondrion, enclosed by the inner membrane. contains many different enzymes as well as mitochondrial DNA and ribosomes.
Coded information in the form of hereditary units.
Catalyses the synthesis of new DNA by adding nucleotides to the preexisting chain.
When one trait is dominant and the other is recessive
Contains most of the genes in the eukaryotic cell.
stacks of thylakoids
A warehouse for receiving, sorting, shipping and manufacturing products of the ER.
Variation in phenotype depending on whether an allele came from the male or the female
Organism that has a pair of identical alleles for a gene
The purpose of meiosis I, reduces the chromosomes in half.
Extracellular structure of plant cells. distinguishes them from animal cells. protects plant cells, maintains its shape, and prevents excessive uptake of water.
States that two alleles of a heritable character segregate from one another during gamete formation & end up with different gametes.
Specialized metabolic compartment bonded by a single membrane. Cooperates with chloroplasts and mitochondrion in certain metabolic functions
Exists at the point where a cross-over has occured.
Organism that has 2 different alleles for a gene
Tiny complexes that make proteins according to instructions from the genes, all cells have these. Made of RNA and protein.
An extensive network of membrane that accounts for more than half the total membrane in many euk. cells.
Proteins that have carbs covalently bonded to them.
When neither allele is completely dominant & their phenotype is a mix between the two alleles (eg. pink flowers from white and red parents)
Genotype that is associated with a range of phenotypic possibilities due to environmental influences
At the ends of replication bubbles, y-shaped region where particular strands of DNA are being unwound
An offspring whose phenotype differs from that of the true-breeding P generation parents. Also refers to the phenotype itself.
Each variant for a character of an individual.
The lesser condensed form of chromatin that can be transcribed
Proteins built into the plasma membrane. Transmit signals between the ECM and cytoskeleton and indicate changes.
Inside the centrosome, consist of 9 sets of triplet microtubules arranged in a ring.
Studded with ribosomes on the outer surface of the membrane. Proteins attach to this.
Characters that don't vary categorically (eg. height, skin color)
fluid outside chloroplast DNA
2nd type of life, includes both diploid & haploid stages that are multicellular.
Family tree describing the traits of parents & children across the generations
Perforate cell walls. Membrane-line channels filled with cytoplasm.
Infoldings of an inner membrane
Enzymes that untwist the double helix at the replication forks, separating the two parental strands and make them available as template strands.
Membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes that animal cells use to digest macromolecules.
flattened, interconnected sac in chloroplast
Includes the nuclear envelope, the ER, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, various types of vesicles and vacuoles, and the plasma membrane.
Bind to the unpaired DNA strands after parental strands separate, keeping them from reconnecting
A long cellular appendage specialized for locomotion
A group of genetically identical individuals.
Type of DNA replication in which the replicated double helix consists of one old strand, derived from the parental molecule, and one newly made strand.
aneuploidy involving a missing chromosome
At the boundary of every cell. Functions as a selective barrier that allows passage of enough oxygen, nutrients, and wastes to service the entire cell.
Specialized structure in the nucleus that consist of chromosomal regions containing rRna genes and ribosomal protein. The site of rRna synthesis and ribosomal subunit assembly.
Produced by mitotic division of a zygote, multicellular diploid.
Many factors including genetics, and the environment collectively affect phenotype
The inactive X in each cell of a female condenses into a compact object.
States that each pair of alleles segregates independently of each other pair of alleles during gamete formation
1/3 types of animal cell junction
DNA molecules that contain no genes used to protect organism's genes from cutting too far.
Organism's genetic makeup, outward appearance does not display the full picture
Humans have 46. Includes all cells of the body except gametes & their precursors.
All other chromosomes, humans have 46.
An additive effect of 2 or more genes on a single phenotype character.
A gene located on the X chromosome
Solid rods, short, and can for structural networks
The phenotypic expression of a gene at one locus alters that of a gene at a second locus
Alternative versions of a gene
Found in plants and algae, sites of photosynthesis
Breeding an organism with an unknown genotype w/ one with homozygous recessive, in order to determine the genotype of the unknown
A netlike array of protein filaments that maintain the shape of the nucleus by mechanically supporting the nuclear envelope
Hollow rods constructed from tubulin, grow in length by adding tubulin dimers.
Where replication of DNA begins.
encloses the nucleus, separating its contents from the cytoplasm. double membrane, lined by nuclear lamina.
Only produce the same variety as the parent organism, even over many generations.
Membrane enclosed structures within eukaryotic cells.
Genes located on the X chromosome
When subunits run in opposite directions
X & Y chromosomes. They determine an individual's sex. (Females=XX, Males=XY)
The phenotype for a character most commonly observed in a natural population
Any cell with 2 chromosome sets, doesn't include sex cells.
1st filial generation
1/3 types of animal cell junction
ordered list of genetic loci along a chromosome
Short appendage used for movement
Site of cellular respiration, metabolic process that uses oxygen to produce ATP by extracting energy from sugars, fats, and other fuels.
Occurs while replicated homologs are paired during meiosis 1.
Outer surface lacks ribosomes. Synthesis of lipids, metabolism of carbs, detox of poison, and storage of calcium.
A gene's specific location along the length of a chromosome.

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