Biology - Genetics Quiz

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Can you name the Biology 2nd exam?

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A warehouse for receiving, sorting, shipping and manufacturing products of the ER.
An additive effect of 2 or more genes on a single phenotype character.
Coded information in the form of hereditary units.
Two chromosomes that have the same length, centromere, position, & staining pattern.
Family tree describing the traits of parents & children across the generations
flattened, interconnected sac in chloroplast
Site of cellular respiration, metabolic process that uses oxygen to produce ATP by extracting energy from sugars, fats, and other fuels.
2nd filial generation
When the two alleles affect the phenotype in seperate, distinguishable ways
Proteins that have carbs covalently bonded to them.
Larger than microfilaments but shorter than microtubules. Specialize in bearing tension.
A framework of protein fibres extending throughout the nuclear interior
1st filial generation
Sacs made of membrane, tiny.
During Prophase I chromosomes attach to their non-sister chromatid counterparts and exchange DNA segments, doesn't occur in Mitosis.
Solid rods, short, and can for structural networks
When one trait is dominant and the other is recessive
Breeding an organism with an unknown genotype w/ one with homozygous recessive, in order to determine the genotype of the unknown
Heterozygotes who though they don't show any phenotypic affects, could pass the recessive allele on to the next generation
At the boundary of every cell. Functions as a selective barrier that allows passage of enough oxygen, nutrients, and wastes to service the entire cell.
The phenotype for a character most commonly observed in a natural population
Organism's genetic makeup, outward appearance does not display the full picture
Found in plants and algae, sites of photosynthesis
stacks of thylakoids
Extracellular structure of plant cells. distinguishes them from animal cells. protects plant cells, maintains its shape, and prevents excessive uptake of water.
Reproductive cells which are the vehicles that transmit genes from one generation to the next.
When an error is missed, other enzymes remove and replace incorrectly paired nucleotides.
A single individual is the sole parent & passes copies of all its genes to its offspring without the fusion of gametes.
An extensive network of membrane that accounts for more than half the total membrane in many euk. cells.
Mating of two variants.
When subunits run in opposite directions
encloses the nucleus, separating its contents from the cytoplasm. double membrane, lined by nuclear lamina.
A gene's specific location along the length of a chromosome.
When neither allele is completely dominant & their phenotype is a mix between the two alleles (eg. pink flowers from white and red parents)
X & Y chromosomes. They determine an individual's sex. (Females=XX, Males=XY)
Humans have 46. Includes all cells of the body except gametes & their precursors.
Multicellular haploid that's named for its production by mitosis of haploid gametes.
Genes located near each other on the same chromosome, they tend to be inherited together
Tiny complexes that make proteins according to instructions from the genes, all cells have these. Made of RNA and protein.
Proteins built into the plasma membrane. Transmit signals between the ECM and cytoskeleton and indicate changes.
Genes located on the X chromosome
All other chromosomes, humans have 46.
A netlike array of protein filaments that maintain the shape of the nucleus by mechanically supporting the nuclear envelope
Infoldings of an inner membrane
The purpose of meiosis I, reduces the chromosomes in half.
States that each pair of alleles segregates independently of each other pair of alleles during gamete formation
Eukaryotic chromatin that remains highly compact during interphase and is genetically not transcribed
When an incorrect segment of nucleotides is incorrect, they're cut out and refilled.
States that two alleles of a heritable character segregate from one another during gamete formation & end up with different gametes.
Synthesizes discontinuously as a series of segments
DNA molecules that contain no genes used to protect organism's genes from cutting too far.
Enzymes that untwist the double helix at the replication forks, separating the two parental strands and make them available as template strands.
A region often located near the nucleus and is considered a 'microtubule organization center'
Bind to the unpaired DNA strands after parental strands separate, keeping them from reconnecting
Organism that has 2 different alleles for a gene
genetic map based on recombination frequencies
Individual chromosomes that carry genes derived from 2 different parents.
The inactive X in each cell of a female condenses into a compact object.
Each variant for a character of an individual.
2nd compartment of the mitochondrion, enclosed by the inner membrane. contains many different enzymes as well as mitochondrial DNA and ribosomes.
Hollow rods constructed from tubulin, grow in length by adding tubulin dimers.
A gene located on the X chromosome
One of a family of closely related organelles that includes chloroplasts, chromoplasts, amyloplasts, photosynthesis.
Protein that breaks, swivels, and rejoins DNA strands. During DNA replication, helps relieve strain in the double helix ahead of rep. fork.
Membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes that animal cells use to digest macromolecules.
aneuploidy involving a missing chromosome
1/3 types of animal cell junction
Gamete cells require this, reduces # of sets of chromosomes from 2 to 1 in gametes.
A group of genetically identical individuals.
The phenotypic expression of a gene at one locus alters that of a gene at a second locus
Where replication of DNA begins.
Contain a single set of chromosomes. Each has a haploid number of chromosomes. Sex cells.
1/3 types of animal cell junction
Many factors including genetics, and the environment collectively affect phenotype
Catalyses the lengthening of telomeres compensating for the shortening during DNA replication.
A network of fibers extending through the cytoplasm
During Prophase I duplicated homologs are connected to each other via the synaptonemal complex. Doesn't occur in Mitosis.
fluid outside chloroplast DNA
Inside the centrosome, consist of 9 sets of triplet microtubules arranged in a ring.
Parental generation.
Organism that has a pair of identical alleles for a gene
Contains most of the genes in the eukaryotic cell.
An mishap in the distribution of chromosomes by the meiotic spindle which the members of homologs dont move apart properly or don't seperate during meiosis II
Occurs while replicated homologs are paired during meiosis 1.
The lesser condensed form of chromatin that can be transcribed
an animal's version of a cell wall. Contains glycoproteins and other carb. molecules/
Outer surface lacks ribosomes. Synthesis of lipids, metabolism of carbs, detox of poison, and storage of calcium.
Produced by mitotic division of a zygote, multicellular diploid.
Specialized metabolic compartment bonded by a single membrane. Cooperates with chloroplasts and mitochondrion in certain metabolic functions
An offspring whose phenotype differs from that of the true-breeding P generation parents. Also refers to the phenotype itself.
At the ends of replication bubbles, y-shaped region where particular strands of DNA are being unwound
ordered list of genetic loci along a chromosome
Organism's outward appearance/observable traits
Genotype that is associated with a range of phenotypic possibilities due to environmental influences
Short appendage used for movement
Only produce the same variety as the parent organism, even over many generations.
Complex of DNA and protein, fits into the nucleus through an elaborate, multilevel packing system.
Variation in phenotype depending on whether an allele came from the male or the female
Perforate cell walls. Membrane-line channels filled with cytoplasm.
Specialized structure in the nucleus that consist of chromosomal regions containing rRna genes and ribosomal protein. The site of rRna synthesis and ribosomal subunit assembly.
The interior of a cell.
1/3 types of animal cell junction
Large vesicles derived from the ER & golgi apparatus, integral part of cell's endomembrane system.
Type of DNA replication in which the replicated double helix consists of one old strand, derived from the parental molecule, and one newly made strand.
Characters that don't vary categorically (eg. height, skin color)
Catalyses the synthesis of new DNA by adding nucleotides to the preexisting chain.
Two parents give rise to offspring that have unique combinations of genes inherited from the two parents.
Studded with ribosomes on the outer surface of the membrane. Proteins attach to this.
Exists at the point where a cross-over has occured.
Any cell with 2 chromosome sets, doesn't include sex cells.
The initial nucleotide chain that is produced during DNA synthesis is a short stretch of RNA. Starts a complimentary RNA chain so that DNA synthesis can continue.
Inside all cells, semifluid, jellylike substance in which all subcellular components are suspended.
Display of condensed chromosomes arranged in pairs. Used to screen for defective chromosomes associated with certain congenital disorders.
A long cellular appendage specialized for locomotion
Membrane enclosed structures within eukaryotic cells.
proteins responsible for the first level of DNA packing in chromatin.
When an abnormal gamete unites with a normal gamete, the zygote will also have an abnormal number of a particular chromosome
A gene with multiple phenotypic affects
aneuploidy involving an extra/third chromosome
Synthesizes completely using just one primer
Alternative versions of a gene
Diagram used for predicting the allele composition of offspring
Includes the nuclear envelope, the ER, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, various types of vesicles and vacuoles, and the plasma membrane.
2nd type of life, includes both diploid & haploid stages that are multicellular.

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