Biology - Genetics Quiz

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Proteins built into the plasma membrane. Transmit signals between the ECM and cytoskeleton and indicate changes.
Multicellular haploid that's named for its production by mitosis of haploid gametes.
Synthesizes discontinuously as a series of segments
Studded with ribosomes on the outer surface of the membrane. Proteins attach to this.
Proteins that have carbs covalently bonded to them.
Characters that don't vary categorically (eg. height, skin color)
1/3 types of animal cell junction
A region often located near the nucleus and is considered a 'microtubule organization center'
Produced by mitotic division of a zygote, multicellular diploid.
aneuploidy involving a missing chromosome
Reproductive cells which are the vehicles that transmit genes from one generation to the next.
A framework of protein fibres extending throughout the nuclear interior
An mishap in the distribution of chromosomes by the meiotic spindle which the members of homologs dont move apart properly or don't seperate during meiosis II
Two chromosomes that have the same length, centromere, position, & staining pattern.
Occurs while replicated homologs are paired during meiosis 1.
DNA molecules that contain no genes used to protect organism's genes from cutting too far.
A network of fibers extending through the cytoplasm
Organism that has a pair of identical alleles for a gene
Found in plants and algae, sites of photosynthesis
X & Y chromosomes. They determine an individual's sex. (Females=XX, Males=XY)
1/3 types of animal cell junction
A gene's specific location along the length of a chromosome.
When an error is missed, other enzymes remove and replace incorrectly paired nucleotides.
Exists at the point where a cross-over has occured.
Family tree describing the traits of parents & children across the generations
Organism's genetic makeup, outward appearance does not display the full picture
Perforate cell walls. Membrane-line channels filled with cytoplasm.
A gene located on the X chromosome
Enzymes that untwist the double helix at the replication forks, separating the two parental strands and make them available as template strands.
Outer surface lacks ribosomes. Synthesis of lipids, metabolism of carbs, detox of poison, and storage of calcium.
Membrane enclosed structures within eukaryotic cells.
Parental generation.
One of a family of closely related organelles that includes chloroplasts, chromoplasts, amyloplasts, photosynthesis.
Large vesicles derived from the ER & golgi apparatus, integral part of cell's endomembrane system.
Variation in phenotype depending on whether an allele came from the male or the female
Catalyses the lengthening of telomeres compensating for the shortening during DNA replication.
A warehouse for receiving, sorting, shipping and manufacturing products of the ER.
proteins responsible for the first level of DNA packing in chromatin.
Short appendage used for movement
When one trait is dominant and the other is recessive
an animal's version of a cell wall. Contains glycoproteins and other carb. molecules/
The purpose of meiosis I, reduces the chromosomes in half.
All other chromosomes, humans have 46.
When an abnormal gamete unites with a normal gamete, the zygote will also have an abnormal number of a particular chromosome
Many factors including genetics, and the environment collectively affect phenotype
stacks of thylakoids
2nd compartment of the mitochondrion, enclosed by the inner membrane. contains many different enzymes as well as mitochondrial DNA and ribosomes.
Inside all cells, semifluid, jellylike substance in which all subcellular components are suspended.
Each variant for a character of an individual.
A gene with multiple phenotypic affects
Type of DNA replication in which the replicated double helix consists of one old strand, derived from the parental molecule, and one newly made strand.
Eukaryotic chromatin that remains highly compact during interphase and is genetically not transcribed
Gamete cells require this, reduces # of sets of chromosomes from 2 to 1 in gametes.
Genes located near each other on the same chromosome, they tend to be inherited together
Inside the centrosome, consist of 9 sets of triplet microtubules arranged in a ring.
fluid outside chloroplast DNA
When neither allele is completely dominant & their phenotype is a mix between the two alleles (eg. pink flowers from white and red parents)
Breeding an organism with an unknown genotype w/ one with homozygous recessive, in order to determine the genotype of the unknown
ordered list of genetic loci along a chromosome
The phenotypic expression of a gene at one locus alters that of a gene at a second locus
1st filial generation
A single individual is the sole parent & passes copies of all its genes to its offspring without the fusion of gametes.
An additive effect of 2 or more genes on a single phenotype character.
Individual chromosomes that carry genes derived from 2 different parents.
Display of condensed chromosomes arranged in pairs. Used to screen for defective chromosomes associated with certain congenital disorders.
States that two alleles of a heritable character segregate from one another during gamete formation & end up with different gametes.
Protein that breaks, swivels, and rejoins DNA strands. During DNA replication, helps relieve strain in the double helix ahead of rep. fork.
2nd filial generation
An offspring whose phenotype differs from that of the true-breeding P generation parents. Also refers to the phenotype itself.
Extracellular structure of plant cells. distinguishes them from animal cells. protects plant cells, maintains its shape, and prevents excessive uptake of water.
The phenotype for a character most commonly observed in a natural population
1/3 types of animal cell junction
Membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes that animal cells use to digest macromolecules.
Contains most of the genes in the eukaryotic cell.
When subunits run in opposite directions
When an incorrect segment of nucleotides is incorrect, they're cut out and refilled.
Two parents give rise to offspring that have unique combinations of genes inherited from the two parents.
Humans have 46. Includes all cells of the body except gametes & their precursors.
During Prophase I duplicated homologs are connected to each other via the synaptonemal complex. Doesn't occur in Mitosis.
Organism's outward appearance/observable traits
Genotype that is associated with a range of phenotypic possibilities due to environmental influences
Organism that has 2 different alleles for a gene
The initial nucleotide chain that is produced during DNA synthesis is a short stretch of RNA. Starts a complimentary RNA chain so that DNA synthesis can continue.
aneuploidy involving an extra/third chromosome
Mating of two variants.
Genes located on the X chromosome
Specialized metabolic compartment bonded by a single membrane. Cooperates with chloroplasts and mitochondrion in certain metabolic functions
flattened, interconnected sac in chloroplast
During Prophase I chromosomes attach to their non-sister chromatid counterparts and exchange DNA segments, doesn't occur in Mitosis.
Complex of DNA and protein, fits into the nucleus through an elaborate, multilevel packing system.
Coded information in the form of hereditary units.
Contain a single set of chromosomes. Each has a haploid number of chromosomes. Sex cells.
A netlike array of protein filaments that maintain the shape of the nucleus by mechanically supporting the nuclear envelope
Only produce the same variety as the parent organism, even over many generations.
Larger than microfilaments but shorter than microtubules. Specialize in bearing tension.
Bind to the unpaired DNA strands after parental strands separate, keeping them from reconnecting
Hollow rods constructed from tubulin, grow in length by adding tubulin dimers.
Includes the nuclear envelope, the ER, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, various types of vesicles and vacuoles, and the plasma membrane.
Catalyses the synthesis of new DNA by adding nucleotides to the preexisting chain.
genetic map based on recombination frequencies
Specialized structure in the nucleus that consist of chromosomal regions containing rRna genes and ribosomal protein. The site of rRna synthesis and ribosomal subunit assembly.
Site of cellular respiration, metabolic process that uses oxygen to produce ATP by extracting energy from sugars, fats, and other fuels.
When the two alleles affect the phenotype in seperate, distinguishable ways
Infoldings of an inner membrane
At the ends of replication bubbles, y-shaped region where particular strands of DNA are being unwound
At the boundary of every cell. Functions as a selective barrier that allows passage of enough oxygen, nutrients, and wastes to service the entire cell.
The interior of a cell.
Synthesizes completely using just one primer
The inactive X in each cell of a female condenses into a compact object.
encloses the nucleus, separating its contents from the cytoplasm. double membrane, lined by nuclear lamina.
Where replication of DNA begins.
An extensive network of membrane that accounts for more than half the total membrane in many euk. cells.
Any cell with 2 chromosome sets, doesn't include sex cells.
Alternative versions of a gene
2nd type of life, includes both diploid & haploid stages that are multicellular.
States that each pair of alleles segregates independently of each other pair of alleles during gamete formation
Heterozygotes who though they don't show any phenotypic affects, could pass the recessive allele on to the next generation
Tiny complexes that make proteins according to instructions from the genes, all cells have these. Made of RNA and protein.
Solid rods, short, and can for structural networks
A group of genetically identical individuals.
A long cellular appendage specialized for locomotion
Sacs made of membrane, tiny.
The lesser condensed form of chromatin that can be transcribed
Diagram used for predicting the allele composition of offspring

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