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Can you name the Biology 2nd exam?

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2nd type of life, includes both diploid & haploid stages that are multicellular.
1st filial generation
Synthesizes completely using just one primer
stacks of thylakoids
An extensive network of membrane that accounts for more than half the total membrane in many euk. cells.
Extracellular structure of plant cells. distinguishes them from animal cells. protects plant cells, maintains its shape, and prevents excessive uptake of water.
A warehouse for receiving, sorting, shipping and manufacturing products of the ER.
an animal's version of a cell wall. Contains glycoproteins and other carb. molecules/
At the ends of replication bubbles, y-shaped region where particular strands of DNA are being unwound
An additive effect of 2 or more genes on a single phenotype character.
Reproductive cells which are the vehicles that transmit genes from one generation to the next.
Coded information in the form of hereditary units.
Multicellular haploid that's named for its production by mitosis of haploid gametes.
When one trait is dominant and the other is recessive
Variation in phenotype depending on whether an allele came from the male or the female
Gamete cells require this, reduces # of sets of chromosomes from 2 to 1 in gametes.
Two chromosomes that have the same length, centromere, position, & staining pattern.
aneuploidy involving an extra/third chromosome
When the two alleles affect the phenotype in seperate, distinguishable ways
When an incorrect segment of nucleotides is incorrect, they're cut out and refilled.
encloses the nucleus, separating its contents from the cytoplasm. double membrane, lined by nuclear lamina.
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A long cellular appendage specialized for locomotion
Inside all cells, semifluid, jellylike substance in which all subcellular components are suspended.
2nd filial generation
Bind to the unpaired DNA strands after parental strands separate, keeping them from reconnecting
genetic map based on recombination frequencies
Specialized metabolic compartment bonded by a single membrane. Cooperates with chloroplasts and mitochondrion in certain metabolic functions
When neither allele is completely dominant & their phenotype is a mix between the two alleles (eg. pink flowers from white and red parents)
Outer surface lacks ribosomes. Synthesis of lipids, metabolism of carbs, detox of poison, and storage of calcium.
A gene located on the X chromosome
DNA molecules that contain no genes used to protect organism's genes from cutting too far.
2nd compartment of the mitochondrion, enclosed by the inner membrane. contains many different enzymes as well as mitochondrial DNA and ribosomes.
A group of genetically identical individuals.
Membrane enclosed structures within eukaryotic cells.
Membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes that animal cells use to digest macromolecules.
A network of fibers extending through the cytoplasm
Proteins built into the plasma membrane. Transmit signals between the ECM and cytoskeleton and indicate changes.
Only produce the same variety as the parent organism, even over many generations.
The initial nucleotide chain that is produced during DNA synthesis is a short stretch of RNA. Starts a complimentary RNA chain so that DNA synthesis can continue.
Includes the nuclear envelope, the ER, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, various types of vesicles and vacuoles, and the plasma membrane.
The phenotype for a character most commonly observed in a natural population
1/3 types of animal cell junction
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Two parents give rise to offspring that have unique combinations of genes inherited from the two parents.
A region often located near the nucleus and is considered a 'microtubule organization center'
1/3 types of animal cell junction
Display of condensed chromosomes arranged in pairs. Used to screen for defective chromosomes associated with certain congenital disorders.
An mishap in the distribution of chromosomes by the meiotic spindle which the members of homologs dont move apart properly or don't seperate during meiosis II
Organism that has 2 different alleles for a gene
Each variant for a character of an individual.
The interior of a cell.
Alternative versions of a gene
Exists at the point where a cross-over has occured.
Specialized structure in the nucleus that consist of chromosomal regions containing rRna genes and ribosomal protein. The site of rRna synthesis and ribosomal subunit assembly.
Breeding an organism with an unknown genotype w/ one with homozygous recessive, in order to determine the genotype of the unknown
At the boundary of every cell. Functions as a selective barrier that allows passage of enough oxygen, nutrients, and wastes to service the entire cell.
Humans have 46. Includes all cells of the body except gametes & their precursors.
proteins responsible for the first level of DNA packing in chromatin.
Proteins that have carbs covalently bonded to them.
Organism's outward appearance/observable traits
Protein that breaks, swivels, and rejoins DNA strands. During DNA replication, helps relieve strain in the double helix ahead of rep. fork.
Solid rods, short, and can for structural networks
The inactive X in each cell of a female condenses into a compact object.
Diagram used for predicting the allele composition of offspring
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Large vesicles derived from the ER & golgi apparatus, integral part of cell's endomembrane system.
Genes located on the X chromosome
ordered list of genetic loci along a chromosome
Perforate cell walls. Membrane-line channels filled with cytoplasm.
Infoldings of an inner membrane
A single individual is the sole parent & passes copies of all its genes to its offspring without the fusion of gametes.
Site of cellular respiration, metabolic process that uses oxygen to produce ATP by extracting energy from sugars, fats, and other fuels.
All other chromosomes, humans have 46.
Catalyses the lengthening of telomeres compensating for the shortening during DNA replication.
Contain a single set of chromosomes. Each has a haploid number of chromosomes. Sex cells.
Synthesizes discontinuously as a series of segments
The phenotypic expression of a gene at one locus alters that of a gene at a second locus
flattened, interconnected sac in chloroplast
Occurs while replicated homologs are paired during meiosis 1.
Any cell with 2 chromosome sets, doesn't include sex cells.
Complex of DNA and protein, fits into the nucleus through an elaborate, multilevel packing system.
X & Y chromosomes. They determine an individual's sex. (Females=XX, Males=XY)
Organism's genetic makeup, outward appearance does not display the full picture
When an error is missed, other enzymes remove and replace incorrectly paired nucleotides.
When subunits run in opposite directions
Genes located near each other on the same chromosome, they tend to be inherited together
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Sacs made of membrane, tiny.
Organism that has a pair of identical alleles for a gene
Hollow rods constructed from tubulin, grow in length by adding tubulin dimers.
Heterozygotes who though they don't show any phenotypic affects, could pass the recessive allele on to the next generation
The purpose of meiosis I, reduces the chromosomes in half.
Enzymes that untwist the double helix at the replication forks, separating the two parental strands and make them available as template strands.
An offspring whose phenotype differs from that of the true-breeding P generation parents. Also refers to the phenotype itself.
Inside the centrosome, consist of 9 sets of triplet microtubules arranged in a ring.
A gene's specific location along the length of a chromosome.
aneuploidy involving a missing chromosome
Where replication of DNA begins.
Family tree describing the traits of parents & children across the generations
Eukaryotic chromatin that remains highly compact during interphase and is genetically not transcribed
Mating of two variants.
1/3 types of animal cell junction
fluid outside chloroplast DNA
States that each pair of alleles segregates independently of each other pair of alleles during gamete formation
During Prophase I chromosomes attach to their non-sister chromatid counterparts and exchange DNA segments, doesn't occur in Mitosis.
Produced by mitotic division of a zygote, multicellular diploid.
One of a family of closely related organelles that includes chloroplasts, chromoplasts, amyloplasts, photosynthesis.
States that two alleles of a heritable character segregate from one another during gamete formation & end up with different gametes.
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Characters that don't vary categorically (eg. height, skin color)
Many factors including genetics, and the environment collectively affect phenotype
Type of DNA replication in which the replicated double helix consists of one old strand, derived from the parental molecule, and one newly made strand.
The lesser condensed form of chromatin that can be transcribed
Parental generation.
A gene with multiple phenotypic affects
A framework of protein fibres extending throughout the nuclear interior
Studded with ribosomes on the outer surface of the membrane. Proteins attach to this.
Genotype that is associated with a range of phenotypic possibilities due to environmental influences
Individual chromosomes that carry genes derived from 2 different parents.
When an abnormal gamete unites with a normal gamete, the zygote will also have an abnormal number of a particular chromosome
During Prophase I duplicated homologs are connected to each other via the synaptonemal complex. Doesn't occur in Mitosis.
Contains most of the genes in the eukaryotic cell.
Short appendage used for movement
A netlike array of protein filaments that maintain the shape of the nucleus by mechanically supporting the nuclear envelope
Tiny complexes that make proteins according to instructions from the genes, all cells have these. Made of RNA and protein.
Larger than microfilaments but shorter than microtubules. Specialize in bearing tension.
Found in plants and algae, sites of photosynthesis
Catalyses the synthesis of new DNA by adding nucleotides to the preexisting chain.

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