Biology - Genetics Quiz

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Organism's outward appearance/observable traits
Specialized structure in the nucleus that consist of chromosomal regions containing rRna genes and ribosomal protein. The site of rRna synthesis and ribosomal subunit assembly.
Membrane enclosed structures within eukaryotic cells.
All other chromosomes, humans have 46.
The initial nucleotide chain that is produced during DNA synthesis is a short stretch of RNA. Starts a complimentary RNA chain so that DNA synthesis can continue.
A region often located near the nucleus and is considered a 'microtubule organization center'
Proteins that have carbs covalently bonded to them.
Occurs while replicated homologs are paired during meiosis 1.
Many factors including genetics, and the environment collectively affect phenotype
Family tree describing the traits of parents & children across the generations
Synthesizes completely using just one primer
Two parents give rise to offspring that have unique combinations of genes inherited from the two parents.
Genes located near each other on the same chromosome, they tend to be inherited together
Heterozygotes who though they don't show any phenotypic affects, could pass the recessive allele on to the next generation
Specialized metabolic compartment bonded by a single membrane. Cooperates with chloroplasts and mitochondrion in certain metabolic functions
Any cell with 2 chromosome sets, doesn't include sex cells.
Larger than microfilaments but shorter than microtubules. Specialize in bearing tension.
A single individual is the sole parent & passes copies of all its genes to its offspring without the fusion of gametes.
Catalyses the synthesis of new DNA by adding nucleotides to the preexisting chain.
Where replication of DNA begins.
During Prophase I duplicated homologs are connected to each other via the synaptonemal complex. Doesn't occur in Mitosis.
An extensive network of membrane that accounts for more than half the total membrane in many euk. cells.
Hollow rods constructed from tubulin, grow in length by adding tubulin dimers.
DNA molecules that contain no genes used to protect organism's genes from cutting too far.
Variation in phenotype depending on whether an allele came from the male or the female
Parental generation.
proteins responsible for the first level of DNA packing in chromatin.
2nd compartment of the mitochondrion, enclosed by the inner membrane. contains many different enzymes as well as mitochondrial DNA and ribosomes.
Coded information in the form of hereditary units.
A gene's specific location along the length of a chromosome.
Breeding an organism with an unknown genotype w/ one with homozygous recessive, in order to determine the genotype of the unknown
Proteins built into the plasma membrane. Transmit signals between the ECM and cytoskeleton and indicate changes.
Alternative versions of a gene
When subunits run in opposite directions
Complex of DNA and protein, fits into the nucleus through an elaborate, multilevel packing system.
Contains most of the genes in the eukaryotic cell.
States that each pair of alleles segregates independently of each other pair of alleles during gamete formation
2nd type of life, includes both diploid & haploid stages that are multicellular.
Perforate cell walls. Membrane-line channels filled with cytoplasm.
1st filial generation
Genotype that is associated with a range of phenotypic possibilities due to environmental influences
Each variant for a character of an individual.
Found in plants and algae, sites of photosynthesis
an animal's version of a cell wall. Contains glycoproteins and other carb. molecules/
Display of condensed chromosomes arranged in pairs. Used to screen for defective chromosomes associated with certain congenital disorders.
Reproductive cells which are the vehicles that transmit genes from one generation to the next.
Organism's genetic makeup, outward appearance does not display the full picture
During Prophase I chromosomes attach to their non-sister chromatid counterparts and exchange DNA segments, doesn't occur in Mitosis.
An offspring whose phenotype differs from that of the true-breeding P generation parents. Also refers to the phenotype itself.
A network of fibers extending through the cytoplasm
An mishap in the distribution of chromosomes by the meiotic spindle which the members of homologs dont move apart properly or don't seperate during meiosis II
A long cellular appendage specialized for locomotion
Multicellular haploid that's named for its production by mitosis of haploid gametes.
Infoldings of an inner membrane
A group of genetically identical individuals.
Genes located on the X chromosome
genetic map based on recombination frequencies
stacks of thylakoids
A framework of protein fibres extending throughout the nuclear interior
A warehouse for receiving, sorting, shipping and manufacturing products of the ER.
flattened, interconnected sac in chloroplast
Membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes that animal cells use to digest macromolecules.
Bind to the unpaired DNA strands after parental strands separate, keeping them from reconnecting
Humans have 46. Includes all cells of the body except gametes & their precursors.
A gene with multiple phenotypic affects
Short appendage used for movement
Tiny complexes that make proteins according to instructions from the genes, all cells have these. Made of RNA and protein.
Large vesicles derived from the ER & golgi apparatus, integral part of cell's endomembrane system.
Gamete cells require this, reduces # of sets of chromosomes from 2 to 1 in gametes.
The phenotype for a character most commonly observed in a natural population
Synthesizes discontinuously as a series of segments
Mating of two variants.
2nd filial generation
Individual chromosomes that carry genes derived from 2 different parents.
Two chromosomes that have the same length, centromere, position, & staining pattern.
Type of DNA replication in which the replicated double helix consists of one old strand, derived from the parental molecule, and one newly made strand.
Inside all cells, semifluid, jellylike substance in which all subcellular components are suspended.
One of a family of closely related organelles that includes chloroplasts, chromoplasts, amyloplasts, photosynthesis.
Extracellular structure of plant cells. distinguishes them from animal cells. protects plant cells, maintains its shape, and prevents excessive uptake of water.
Protein that breaks, swivels, and rejoins DNA strands. During DNA replication, helps relieve strain in the double helix ahead of rep. fork.
Site of cellular respiration, metabolic process that uses oxygen to produce ATP by extracting energy from sugars, fats, and other fuels.
Outer surface lacks ribosomes. Synthesis of lipids, metabolism of carbs, detox of poison, and storage of calcium.
Characters that don't vary categorically (eg. height, skin color)
When the two alleles affect the phenotype in seperate, distinguishable ways
When one trait is dominant and the other is recessive
Produced by mitotic division of a zygote, multicellular diploid.
1/3 types of animal cell junction
aneuploidy involving an extra/third chromosome
The inactive X in each cell of a female condenses into a compact object.
When an abnormal gamete unites with a normal gamete, the zygote will also have an abnormal number of a particular chromosome
Solid rods, short, and can for structural networks
The purpose of meiosis I, reduces the chromosomes in half.
Enzymes that untwist the double helix at the replication forks, separating the two parental strands and make them available as template strands.
1/3 types of animal cell junction
An additive effect of 2 or more genes on a single phenotype character.
Diagram used for predicting the allele composition of offspring
Eukaryotic chromatin that remains highly compact during interphase and is genetically not transcribed
encloses the nucleus, separating its contents from the cytoplasm. double membrane, lined by nuclear lamina.
Includes the nuclear envelope, the ER, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, various types of vesicles and vacuoles, and the plasma membrane.
At the boundary of every cell. Functions as a selective barrier that allows passage of enough oxygen, nutrients, and wastes to service the entire cell.
Organism that has 2 different alleles for a gene
Contain a single set of chromosomes. Each has a haploid number of chromosomes. Sex cells.
Only produce the same variety as the parent organism, even over many generations.
ordered list of genetic loci along a chromosome
When an error is missed, other enzymes remove and replace incorrectly paired nucleotides.
Exists at the point where a cross-over has occured.
1/3 types of animal cell junction
When an incorrect segment of nucleotides is incorrect, they're cut out and refilled.
aneuploidy involving a missing chromosome
Sacs made of membrane, tiny.
When neither allele is completely dominant & their phenotype is a mix between the two alleles (eg. pink flowers from white and red parents)
fluid outside chloroplast DNA
X & Y chromosomes. They determine an individual's sex. (Females=XX, Males=XY)
Organism that has a pair of identical alleles for a gene
At the ends of replication bubbles, y-shaped region where particular strands of DNA are being unwound
A netlike array of protein filaments that maintain the shape of the nucleus by mechanically supporting the nuclear envelope
Catalyses the lengthening of telomeres compensating for the shortening during DNA replication.
States that two alleles of a heritable character segregate from one another during gamete formation & end up with different gametes.
The interior of a cell.
The phenotypic expression of a gene at one locus alters that of a gene at a second locus
Inside the centrosome, consist of 9 sets of triplet microtubules arranged in a ring.
The lesser condensed form of chromatin that can be transcribed
Studded with ribosomes on the outer surface of the membrane. Proteins attach to this.
A gene located on the X chromosome

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