Biology - Genetics Quiz

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ordered list of genetic loci along a chromosome
DNA molecules that contain no genes used to protect organism's genes from cutting too far.
Synthesizes completely using just one primer
Found in plants and algae, sites of photosynthesis
Parental generation.
Organism that has 2 different alleles for a gene
Two chromosomes that have the same length, centromere, position, & staining pattern.
Coded information in the form of hereditary units.
Exists at the point where a cross-over has occured.
Hollow rods constructed from tubulin, grow in length by adding tubulin dimers.
Characters that don't vary categorically (eg. height, skin color)
Gamete cells require this, reduces # of sets of chromosomes from 2 to 1 in gametes.
A warehouse for receiving, sorting, shipping and manufacturing products of the ER.
Enzymes that untwist the double helix at the replication forks, separating the two parental strands and make them available as template strands.
Eukaryotic chromatin that remains highly compact during interphase and is genetically not transcribed
Type of DNA replication in which the replicated double helix consists of one old strand, derived from the parental molecule, and one newly made strand.
Bind to the unpaired DNA strands after parental strands separate, keeping them from reconnecting
1/3 types of animal cell junction
Larger than microfilaments but shorter than microtubules. Specialize in bearing tension.
Each variant for a character of an individual.
A long cellular appendage specialized for locomotion
The inactive X in each cell of a female condenses into a compact object.
When the two alleles affect the phenotype in seperate, distinguishable ways
The phenotype for a character most commonly observed in a natural population
Membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes that animal cells use to digest macromolecules.
An extensive network of membrane that accounts for more than half the total membrane in many euk. cells.
Contain a single set of chromosomes. Each has a haploid number of chromosomes. Sex cells.
Catalyses the lengthening of telomeres compensating for the shortening during DNA replication.
Large vesicles derived from the ER & golgi apparatus, integral part of cell's endomembrane system.
Produced by mitotic division of a zygote, multicellular diploid.
During Prophase I duplicated homologs are connected to each other via the synaptonemal complex. Doesn't occur in Mitosis.
Where replication of DNA begins.
A network of fibers extending through the cytoplasm
Synthesizes discontinuously as a series of segments
Tiny complexes that make proteins according to instructions from the genes, all cells have these. Made of RNA and protein.
Solid rods, short, and can for structural networks
When an incorrect segment of nucleotides is incorrect, they're cut out and refilled.
An additive effect of 2 or more genes on a single phenotype character.
1/3 types of animal cell junction
One of a family of closely related organelles that includes chloroplasts, chromoplasts, amyloplasts, photosynthesis.
Genotype that is associated with a range of phenotypic possibilities due to environmental influences
Humans have 46. Includes all cells of the body except gametes & their precursors.
Organism's genetic makeup, outward appearance does not display the full picture
An offspring whose phenotype differs from that of the true-breeding P generation parents. Also refers to the phenotype itself.
States that two alleles of a heritable character segregate from one another during gamete formation & end up with different gametes.
Inside the centrosome, consist of 9 sets of triplet microtubules arranged in a ring.
Extracellular structure of plant cells. distinguishes them from animal cells. protects plant cells, maintains its shape, and prevents excessive uptake of water.
genetic map based on recombination frequencies
Individual chromosomes that carry genes derived from 2 different parents.
Studded with ribosomes on the outer surface of the membrane. Proteins attach to this.
Reproductive cells which are the vehicles that transmit genes from one generation to the next.
An mishap in the distribution of chromosomes by the meiotic spindle which the members of homologs dont move apart properly or don't seperate during meiosis II
aneuploidy involving an extra/third chromosome
X & Y chromosomes. They determine an individual's sex. (Females=XX, Males=XY)
During Prophase I chromosomes attach to their non-sister chromatid counterparts and exchange DNA segments, doesn't occur in Mitosis.
A region often located near the nucleus and is considered a 'microtubule organization center'
A group of genetically identical individuals.
stacks of thylakoids
Specialized metabolic compartment bonded by a single membrane. Cooperates with chloroplasts and mitochondrion in certain metabolic functions
At the ends of replication bubbles, y-shaped region where particular strands of DNA are being unwound
Genes located near each other on the same chromosome, they tend to be inherited together
Protein that breaks, swivels, and rejoins DNA strands. During DNA replication, helps relieve strain in the double helix ahead of rep. fork.
The initial nucleotide chain that is produced during DNA synthesis is a short stretch of RNA. Starts a complimentary RNA chain so that DNA synthesis can continue.
1/3 types of animal cell junction
At the boundary of every cell. Functions as a selective barrier that allows passage of enough oxygen, nutrients, and wastes to service the entire cell.
2nd compartment of the mitochondrion, enclosed by the inner membrane. contains many different enzymes as well as mitochondrial DNA and ribosomes.
Complex of DNA and protein, fits into the nucleus through an elaborate, multilevel packing system.
Site of cellular respiration, metabolic process that uses oxygen to produce ATP by extracting energy from sugars, fats, and other fuels.
States that each pair of alleles segregates independently of each other pair of alleles during gamete formation
proteins responsible for the first level of DNA packing in chromatin.
The lesser condensed form of chromatin that can be transcribed
fluid outside chloroplast DNA
Diagram used for predicting the allele composition of offspring
Alternative versions of a gene
When an abnormal gamete unites with a normal gamete, the zygote will also have an abnormal number of a particular chromosome
A gene with multiple phenotypic affects
Outer surface lacks ribosomes. Synthesis of lipids, metabolism of carbs, detox of poison, and storage of calcium.
Membrane enclosed structures within eukaryotic cells.
Display of condensed chromosomes arranged in pairs. Used to screen for defective chromosomes associated with certain congenital disorders.
When neither allele is completely dominant & their phenotype is a mix between the two alleles (eg. pink flowers from white and red parents)
Many factors including genetics, and the environment collectively affect phenotype
Catalyses the synthesis of new DNA by adding nucleotides to the preexisting chain.
Genes located on the X chromosome
Any cell with 2 chromosome sets, doesn't include sex cells.
Two parents give rise to offspring that have unique combinations of genes inherited from the two parents.
The phenotypic expression of a gene at one locus alters that of a gene at a second locus
Multicellular haploid that's named for its production by mitosis of haploid gametes.
Contains most of the genes in the eukaryotic cell.
The interior of a cell.
A single individual is the sole parent & passes copies of all its genes to its offspring without the fusion of gametes.
Organism's outward appearance/observable traits
Organism that has a pair of identical alleles for a gene
A netlike array of protein filaments that maintain the shape of the nucleus by mechanically supporting the nuclear envelope
aneuploidy involving a missing chromosome
A framework of protein fibres extending throughout the nuclear interior
2nd filial generation
Occurs while replicated homologs are paired during meiosis 1.
Includes the nuclear envelope, the ER, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, various types of vesicles and vacuoles, and the plasma membrane.
Mating of two variants.
A gene's specific location along the length of a chromosome.
Only produce the same variety as the parent organism, even over many generations.
Infoldings of an inner membrane
an animal's version of a cell wall. Contains glycoproteins and other carb. molecules/
Short appendage used for movement
Breeding an organism with an unknown genotype w/ one with homozygous recessive, in order to determine the genotype of the unknown
Sacs made of membrane, tiny.
Family tree describing the traits of parents & children across the generations
Variation in phenotype depending on whether an allele came from the male or the female
When one trait is dominant and the other is recessive
1st filial generation
Proteins that have carbs covalently bonded to them.
Heterozygotes who though they don't show any phenotypic affects, could pass the recessive allele on to the next generation
encloses the nucleus, separating its contents from the cytoplasm. double membrane, lined by nuclear lamina.
2nd type of life, includes both diploid & haploid stages that are multicellular.
flattened, interconnected sac in chloroplast
Perforate cell walls. Membrane-line channels filled with cytoplasm.
When subunits run in opposite directions
The purpose of meiosis I, reduces the chromosomes in half.
Proteins built into the plasma membrane. Transmit signals between the ECM and cytoskeleton and indicate changes.
When an error is missed, other enzymes remove and replace incorrectly paired nucleotides.
All other chromosomes, humans have 46.
Specialized structure in the nucleus that consist of chromosomal regions containing rRna genes and ribosomal protein. The site of rRna synthesis and ribosomal subunit assembly.
A gene located on the X chromosome
Inside all cells, semifluid, jellylike substance in which all subcellular components are suspended.

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