Biology - Genetics Quiz

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Can you name the Biology 2nd exam?

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Parental generation.
An mishap in the distribution of chromosomes by the meiotic spindle which the members of homologs dont move apart properly or don't seperate during meiosis II
Synthesizes discontinuously as a series of segments
encloses the nucleus, separating its contents from the cytoplasm. double membrane, lined by nuclear lamina.
When an error is missed, other enzymes remove and replace incorrectly paired nucleotides.
An extensive network of membrane that accounts for more than half the total membrane in many euk. cells.
Site of cellular respiration, metabolic process that uses oxygen to produce ATP by extracting energy from sugars, fats, and other fuels.
DNA molecules that contain no genes used to protect organism's genes from cutting too far.
2nd filial generation
A group of genetically identical individuals.
Family tree describing the traits of parents & children across the generations
Organism's genetic makeup, outward appearance does not display the full picture
Type of DNA replication in which the replicated double helix consists of one old strand, derived from the parental molecule, and one newly made strand.
A single individual is the sole parent & passes copies of all its genes to its offspring without the fusion of gametes.
All other chromosomes, humans have 46.
Short appendage used for movement
Any cell with 2 chromosome sets, doesn't include sex cells.
A region often located near the nucleus and is considered a 'microtubule organization center'
The phenotypic expression of a gene at one locus alters that of a gene at a second locus
Characters that don't vary categorically (eg. height, skin color)
Proteins built into the plasma membrane. Transmit signals between the ECM and cytoskeleton and indicate changes.
At the ends of replication bubbles, y-shaped region where particular strands of DNA are being unwound
Specialized structure in the nucleus that consist of chromosomal regions containing rRna genes and ribosomal protein. The site of rRna synthesis and ribosomal subunit assembly.
Eukaryotic chromatin that remains highly compact during interphase and is genetically not transcribed
Heterozygotes who though they don't show any phenotypic affects, could pass the recessive allele on to the next generation
Proteins that have carbs covalently bonded to them.
A framework of protein fibres extending throughout the nuclear interior
Individual chromosomes that carry genes derived from 2 different parents.
A gene located on the X chromosome
Perforate cell walls. Membrane-line channels filled with cytoplasm.
Display of condensed chromosomes arranged in pairs. Used to screen for defective chromosomes associated with certain congenital disorders.
Inside all cells, semifluid, jellylike substance in which all subcellular components are suspended.
aneuploidy involving an extra/third chromosome
Includes the nuclear envelope, the ER, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, various types of vesicles and vacuoles, and the plasma membrane.
Tiny complexes that make proteins according to instructions from the genes, all cells have these. Made of RNA and protein.
When an incorrect segment of nucleotides is incorrect, they're cut out and refilled.
Sacs made of membrane, tiny.
Breeding an organism with an unknown genotype w/ one with homozygous recessive, in order to determine the genotype of the unknown
When neither allele is completely dominant & their phenotype is a mix between the two alleles (eg. pink flowers from white and red parents)
an animal's version of a cell wall. Contains glycoproteins and other carb. molecules/
Multicellular haploid that's named for its production by mitosis of haploid gametes.
Only produce the same variety as the parent organism, even over many generations.
Infoldings of an inner membrane
Specialized metabolic compartment bonded by a single membrane. Cooperates with chloroplasts and mitochondrion in certain metabolic functions
1/3 types of animal cell junction
A long cellular appendage specialized for locomotion
Studded with ribosomes on the outer surface of the membrane. Proteins attach to this.
Solid rods, short, and can for structural networks
Membrane enclosed structures within eukaryotic cells.
During Prophase I chromosomes attach to their non-sister chromatid counterparts and exchange DNA segments, doesn't occur in Mitosis.
Two parents give rise to offspring that have unique combinations of genes inherited from the two parents.
Exists at the point where a cross-over has occured.
ordered list of genetic loci along a chromosome
Genes located on the X chromosome
When the two alleles affect the phenotype in seperate, distinguishable ways
Outer surface lacks ribosomes. Synthesis of lipids, metabolism of carbs, detox of poison, and storage of calcium.
Contains most of the genes in the eukaryotic cell.
Found in plants and algae, sites of photosynthesis
Mating of two variants.
Variation in phenotype depending on whether an allele came from the male or the female
fluid outside chloroplast DNA
Inside the centrosome, consist of 9 sets of triplet microtubules arranged in a ring.
1st filial generation
Hollow rods constructed from tubulin, grow in length by adding tubulin dimers.
Occurs while replicated homologs are paired during meiosis 1.
Contain a single set of chromosomes. Each has a haploid number of chromosomes. Sex cells.
Humans have 46. Includes all cells of the body except gametes & their precursors.
When subunits run in opposite directions
Organism that has a pair of identical alleles for a gene
1/3 types of animal cell junction
When an abnormal gamete unites with a normal gamete, the zygote will also have an abnormal number of a particular chromosome
Organism's outward appearance/observable traits
Catalyses the synthesis of new DNA by adding nucleotides to the preexisting chain.
At the boundary of every cell. Functions as a selective barrier that allows passage of enough oxygen, nutrients, and wastes to service the entire cell.
flattened, interconnected sac in chloroplast
Each variant for a character of an individual.
Complex of DNA and protein, fits into the nucleus through an elaborate, multilevel packing system.
Protein that breaks, swivels, and rejoins DNA strands. During DNA replication, helps relieve strain in the double helix ahead of rep. fork.
stacks of thylakoids
Catalyses the lengthening of telomeres compensating for the shortening during DNA replication.
Alternative versions of a gene
The interior of a cell.
Genes located near each other on the same chromosome, they tend to be inherited together
One of a family of closely related organelles that includes chloroplasts, chromoplasts, amyloplasts, photosynthesis.
2nd type of life, includes both diploid & haploid stages that are multicellular.
proteins responsible for the first level of DNA packing in chromatin.
1/3 types of animal cell junction
Enzymes that untwist the double helix at the replication forks, separating the two parental strands and make them available as template strands.
Membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes that animal cells use to digest macromolecules.
When one trait is dominant and the other is recessive
An offspring whose phenotype differs from that of the true-breeding P generation parents. Also refers to the phenotype itself.
Two chromosomes that have the same length, centromere, position, & staining pattern.
During Prophase I duplicated homologs are connected to each other via the synaptonemal complex. Doesn't occur in Mitosis.
The purpose of meiosis I, reduces the chromosomes in half.
The inactive X in each cell of a female condenses into a compact object.
A netlike array of protein filaments that maintain the shape of the nucleus by mechanically supporting the nuclear envelope
Synthesizes completely using just one primer
aneuploidy involving a missing chromosome
Extracellular structure of plant cells. distinguishes them from animal cells. protects plant cells, maintains its shape, and prevents excessive uptake of water.
Large vesicles derived from the ER & golgi apparatus, integral part of cell's endomembrane system.
Many factors including genetics, and the environment collectively affect phenotype
Genotype that is associated with a range of phenotypic possibilities due to environmental influences
2nd compartment of the mitochondrion, enclosed by the inner membrane. contains many different enzymes as well as mitochondrial DNA and ribosomes.
The initial nucleotide chain that is produced during DNA synthesis is a short stretch of RNA. Starts a complimentary RNA chain so that DNA synthesis can continue.
A gene with multiple phenotypic affects
Larger than microfilaments but shorter than microtubules. Specialize in bearing tension.
Gamete cells require this, reduces # of sets of chromosomes from 2 to 1 in gametes.
A gene's specific location along the length of a chromosome.
genetic map based on recombination frequencies
A network of fibers extending through the cytoplasm
States that each pair of alleles segregates independently of each other pair of alleles during gamete formation
Organism that has 2 different alleles for a gene
Coded information in the form of hereditary units.
The lesser condensed form of chromatin that can be transcribed
Where replication of DNA begins.
The phenotype for a character most commonly observed in a natural population
A warehouse for receiving, sorting, shipping and manufacturing products of the ER.
X & Y chromosomes. They determine an individual's sex. (Females=XX, Males=XY)
Produced by mitotic division of a zygote, multicellular diploid.
Reproductive cells which are the vehicles that transmit genes from one generation to the next.
Diagram used for predicting the allele composition of offspring
An additive effect of 2 or more genes on a single phenotype character.
Bind to the unpaired DNA strands after parental strands separate, keeping them from reconnecting
States that two alleles of a heritable character segregate from one another during gamete formation & end up with different gametes.

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