Biology - Genetics Quiz

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Can you name the Biology 2nd exam?

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Short appendage used for movement
Two parents give rise to offspring that have unique combinations of genes inherited from the two parents.
Sacs made of membrane, tiny.
1/3 types of animal cell junction
Perforate cell walls. Membrane-line channels filled with cytoplasm.
Heterozygotes who though they don't show any phenotypic affects, could pass the recessive allele on to the next generation
Breeding an organism with an unknown genotype w/ one with homozygous recessive, in order to determine the genotype of the unknown
An mishap in the distribution of chromosomes by the meiotic spindle which the members of homologs dont move apart properly or don't seperate during meiosis II
Catalyses the synthesis of new DNA by adding nucleotides to the preexisting chain.
2nd filial generation
Specialized metabolic compartment bonded by a single membrane. Cooperates with chloroplasts and mitochondrion in certain metabolic functions
Complex of DNA and protein, fits into the nucleus through an elaborate, multilevel packing system.
Individual chromosomes that carry genes derived from 2 different parents.
Alternative versions of a gene
Genes located near each other on the same chromosome, they tend to be inherited together
Genotype that is associated with a range of phenotypic possibilities due to environmental influences
A single individual is the sole parent & passes copies of all its genes to its offspring without the fusion of gametes.
Infoldings of an inner membrane
X & Y chromosomes. They determine an individual's sex. (Females=XX, Males=XY)
Two chromosomes that have the same length, centromere, position, & staining pattern.
A gene located on the X chromosome
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A gene with multiple phenotypic affects
genetic map based on recombination frequencies
Site of cellular respiration, metabolic process that uses oxygen to produce ATP by extracting energy from sugars, fats, and other fuels.
Any cell with 2 chromosome sets, doesn't include sex cells.
Proteins built into the plasma membrane. Transmit signals between the ECM and cytoskeleton and indicate changes.
Multicellular haploid that's named for its production by mitosis of haploid gametes.
Where replication of DNA begins.
ordered list of genetic loci along a chromosome
Exists at the point where a cross-over has occured.
Eukaryotic chromatin that remains highly compact during interphase and is genetically not transcribed
proteins responsible for the first level of DNA packing in chromatin.
When subunits run in opposite directions
2nd type of life, includes both diploid & haploid stages that are multicellular.
Found in plants and algae, sites of photosynthesis
Gamete cells require this, reduces # of sets of chromosomes from 2 to 1 in gametes.
At the ends of replication bubbles, y-shaped region where particular strands of DNA are being unwound
Contains most of the genes in the eukaryotic cell.
Includes the nuclear envelope, the ER, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, various types of vesicles and vacuoles, and the plasma membrane.
When neither allele is completely dominant & their phenotype is a mix between the two alleles (eg. pink flowers from white and red parents)
An extensive network of membrane that accounts for more than half the total membrane in many euk. cells.
stacks of thylakoids
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Synthesizes discontinuously as a series of segments
Protein that breaks, swivels, and rejoins DNA strands. During DNA replication, helps relieve strain in the double helix ahead of rep. fork.
When an error is missed, other enzymes remove and replace incorrectly paired nucleotides.
Mating of two variants.
The lesser condensed form of chromatin that can be transcribed
2nd compartment of the mitochondrion, enclosed by the inner membrane. contains many different enzymes as well as mitochondrial DNA and ribosomes.
A warehouse for receiving, sorting, shipping and manufacturing products of the ER.
Large vesicles derived from the ER & golgi apparatus, integral part of cell's endomembrane system.
fluid outside chloroplast DNA
Many factors including genetics, and the environment collectively affect phenotype
Type of DNA replication in which the replicated double helix consists of one old strand, derived from the parental molecule, and one newly made strand.
Membrane enclosed structures within eukaryotic cells.
Coded information in the form of hereditary units.
At the boundary of every cell. Functions as a selective barrier that allows passage of enough oxygen, nutrients, and wastes to service the entire cell.
Proteins that have carbs covalently bonded to them.
Display of condensed chromosomes arranged in pairs. Used to screen for defective chromosomes associated with certain congenital disorders.
The interior of a cell.
A group of genetically identical individuals.
During Prophase I chromosomes attach to their non-sister chromatid counterparts and exchange DNA segments, doesn't occur in Mitosis.
1/3 types of animal cell junction
encloses the nucleus, separating its contents from the cytoplasm. double membrane, lined by nuclear lamina.
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aneuploidy involving a missing chromosome
Occurs while replicated homologs are paired during meiosis 1.
The purpose of meiosis I, reduces the chromosomes in half.
When the two alleles affect the phenotype in seperate, distinguishable ways
Characters that don't vary categorically (eg. height, skin color)
A netlike array of protein filaments that maintain the shape of the nucleus by mechanically supporting the nuclear envelope
The initial nucleotide chain that is produced during DNA synthesis is a short stretch of RNA. Starts a complimentary RNA chain so that DNA synthesis can continue.
1st filial generation
aneuploidy involving an extra/third chromosome
flattened, interconnected sac in chloroplast
A gene's specific location along the length of a chromosome.
The inactive X in each cell of a female condenses into a compact object.
Membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes that animal cells use to digest macromolecules.
One of a family of closely related organelles that includes chloroplasts, chromoplasts, amyloplasts, photosynthesis.
Enzymes that untwist the double helix at the replication forks, separating the two parental strands and make them available as template strands.
A network of fibers extending through the cytoplasm
Diagram used for predicting the allele composition of offspring
Bind to the unpaired DNA strands after parental strands separate, keeping them from reconnecting
All other chromosomes, humans have 46.
Synthesizes completely using just one primer
An offspring whose phenotype differs from that of the true-breeding P generation parents. Also refers to the phenotype itself.
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Contain a single set of chromosomes. Each has a haploid number of chromosomes. Sex cells.
DNA molecules that contain no genes used to protect organism's genes from cutting too far.
Inside the centrosome, consist of 9 sets of triplet microtubules arranged in a ring.
Tiny complexes that make proteins according to instructions from the genes, all cells have these. Made of RNA and protein.
Catalyses the lengthening of telomeres compensating for the shortening during DNA replication.
When an incorrect segment of nucleotides is incorrect, they're cut out and refilled.
Only produce the same variety as the parent organism, even over many generations.
Organism that has a pair of identical alleles for a gene
Extracellular structure of plant cells. distinguishes them from animal cells. protects plant cells, maintains its shape, and prevents excessive uptake of water.
The phenotype for a character most commonly observed in a natural population
Organism's outward appearance/observable traits
Produced by mitotic division of a zygote, multicellular diploid.
Larger than microfilaments but shorter than microtubules. Specialize in bearing tension.
Hollow rods constructed from tubulin, grow in length by adding tubulin dimers.
Parental generation.
Family tree describing the traits of parents & children across the generations
States that two alleles of a heritable character segregate from one another during gamete formation & end up with different gametes.
Organism that has 2 different alleles for a gene
During Prophase I duplicated homologs are connected to each other via the synaptonemal complex. Doesn't occur in Mitosis.
When one trait is dominant and the other is recessive
an animal's version of a cell wall. Contains glycoproteins and other carb. molecules/
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A framework of protein fibres extending throughout the nuclear interior
Outer surface lacks ribosomes. Synthesis of lipids, metabolism of carbs, detox of poison, and storage of calcium.
Studded with ribosomes on the outer surface of the membrane. Proteins attach to this.
Reproductive cells which are the vehicles that transmit genes from one generation to the next.
States that each pair of alleles segregates independently of each other pair of alleles during gamete formation
When an abnormal gamete unites with a normal gamete, the zygote will also have an abnormal number of a particular chromosome
Solid rods, short, and can for structural networks
A long cellular appendage specialized for locomotion
A region often located near the nucleus and is considered a 'microtubule organization center'
An additive effect of 2 or more genes on a single phenotype character.
Each variant for a character of an individual.
Humans have 46. Includes all cells of the body except gametes & their precursors.
Genes located on the X chromosome
Inside all cells, semifluid, jellylike substance in which all subcellular components are suspended.
Variation in phenotype depending on whether an allele came from the male or the female
Organism's genetic makeup, outward appearance does not display the full picture
Specialized structure in the nucleus that consist of chromosomal regions containing rRna genes and ribosomal protein. The site of rRna synthesis and ribosomal subunit assembly.
1/3 types of animal cell junction
The phenotypic expression of a gene at one locus alters that of a gene at a second locus

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