Biology - Genetics Quiz

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Can you name the Biology 2nd exam?

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Inside all cells, semifluid, jellylike substance in which all subcellular components are suspended.
Organism that has a pair of identical alleles for a gene
an animal's version of a cell wall. Contains glycoproteins and other carb. molecules/
Short appendage used for movement
Tiny complexes that make proteins according to instructions from the genes, all cells have these. Made of RNA and protein.
Larger than microfilaments but shorter than microtubules. Specialize in bearing tension.
Characters that don't vary categorically (eg. height, skin color)
aneuploidy involving a missing chromosome
When subunits run in opposite directions
Two chromosomes that have the same length, centromere, position, & staining pattern.
Hollow rods constructed from tubulin, grow in length by adding tubulin dimers.
Large vesicles derived from the ER & golgi apparatus, integral part of cell's endomembrane system.
Perforate cell walls. Membrane-line channels filled with cytoplasm.
1/3 types of animal cell junction
Sacs made of membrane, tiny.
Reproductive cells which are the vehicles that transmit genes from one generation to the next.
Protein that breaks, swivels, and rejoins DNA strands. During DNA replication, helps relieve strain in the double helix ahead of rep. fork.
Produced by mitotic division of a zygote, multicellular diploid.
Catalyses the synthesis of new DNA by adding nucleotides to the preexisting chain.
A gene's specific location along the length of a chromosome.
Membrane enclosed structures within eukaryotic cells.
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States that each pair of alleles segregates independently of each other pair of alleles during gamete formation
Genes located on the X chromosome
Genotype that is associated with a range of phenotypic possibilities due to environmental influences
A warehouse for receiving, sorting, shipping and manufacturing products of the ER.
Family tree describing the traits of parents & children across the generations
encloses the nucleus, separating its contents from the cytoplasm. double membrane, lined by nuclear lamina.
fluid outside chloroplast DNA
DNA molecules that contain no genes used to protect organism's genes from cutting too far.
Found in plants and algae, sites of photosynthesis
Eukaryotic chromatin that remains highly compact during interphase and is genetically not transcribed
An offspring whose phenotype differs from that of the true-breeding P generation parents. Also refers to the phenotype itself.
Contain a single set of chromosomes. Each has a haploid number of chromosomes. Sex cells.
States that two alleles of a heritable character segregate from one another during gamete formation & end up with different gametes.
An additive effect of 2 or more genes on a single phenotype character.
The phenotypic expression of a gene at one locus alters that of a gene at a second locus
Contains most of the genes in the eukaryotic cell.
2nd type of life, includes both diploid & haploid stages that are multicellular.
Each variant for a character of an individual.
1st filial generation
ordered list of genetic loci along a chromosome
A single individual is the sole parent & passes copies of all its genes to its offspring without the fusion of gametes.
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The purpose of meiosis I, reduces the chromosomes in half.
At the ends of replication bubbles, y-shaped region where particular strands of DNA are being unwound
flattened, interconnected sac in chloroplast
Specialized structure in the nucleus that consist of chromosomal regions containing rRna genes and ribosomal protein. The site of rRna synthesis and ribosomal subunit assembly.
Parental generation.
One of a family of closely related organelles that includes chloroplasts, chromoplasts, amyloplasts, photosynthesis.
An extensive network of membrane that accounts for more than half the total membrane in many euk. cells.
A gene with multiple phenotypic affects
Proteins that have carbs covalently bonded to them.
The inactive X in each cell of a female condenses into a compact object.
Breeding an organism with an unknown genotype w/ one with homozygous recessive, in order to determine the genotype of the unknown
The phenotype for a character most commonly observed in a natural population
Display of condensed chromosomes arranged in pairs. Used to screen for defective chromosomes associated with certain congenital disorders.
Solid rods, short, and can for structural networks
Where replication of DNA begins.
Occurs while replicated homologs are paired during meiosis 1.
Studded with ribosomes on the outer surface of the membrane. Proteins attach to this.
Gamete cells require this, reduces # of sets of chromosomes from 2 to 1 in gametes.
Proteins built into the plasma membrane. Transmit signals between the ECM and cytoskeleton and indicate changes.
Catalyses the lengthening of telomeres compensating for the shortening during DNA replication.
Only produce the same variety as the parent organism, even over many generations.
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Outer surface lacks ribosomes. Synthesis of lipids, metabolism of carbs, detox of poison, and storage of calcium.
Variation in phenotype depending on whether an allele came from the male or the female
The interior of a cell.
A netlike array of protein filaments that maintain the shape of the nucleus by mechanically supporting the nuclear envelope
At the boundary of every cell. Functions as a selective barrier that allows passage of enough oxygen, nutrients, and wastes to service the entire cell.
During Prophase I duplicated homologs are connected to each other via the synaptonemal complex. Doesn't occur in Mitosis.
Organism's genetic makeup, outward appearance does not display the full picture
2nd compartment of the mitochondrion, enclosed by the inner membrane. contains many different enzymes as well as mitochondrial DNA and ribosomes.
When neither allele is completely dominant & their phenotype is a mix between the two alleles (eg. pink flowers from white and red parents)
Inside the centrosome, consist of 9 sets of triplet microtubules arranged in a ring.
Synthesizes discontinuously as a series of segments
Two parents give rise to offspring that have unique combinations of genes inherited from the two parents.
proteins responsible for the first level of DNA packing in chromatin.
Organism that has 2 different alleles for a gene
Extracellular structure of plant cells. distinguishes them from animal cells. protects plant cells, maintains its shape, and prevents excessive uptake of water.
Site of cellular respiration, metabolic process that uses oxygen to produce ATP by extracting energy from sugars, fats, and other fuels.
X & Y chromosomes. They determine an individual's sex. (Females=XX, Males=XY)
Membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes that animal cells use to digest macromolecules.
When the two alleles affect the phenotype in seperate, distinguishable ways
Synthesizes completely using just one primer
Many factors including genetics, and the environment collectively affect phenotype
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2nd filial generation
Exists at the point where a cross-over has occured.
Infoldings of an inner membrane
Diagram used for predicting the allele composition of offspring
The initial nucleotide chain that is produced during DNA synthesis is a short stretch of RNA. Starts a complimentary RNA chain so that DNA synthesis can continue.
A group of genetically identical individuals.
The lesser condensed form of chromatin that can be transcribed
Complex of DNA and protein, fits into the nucleus through an elaborate, multilevel packing system.
Genes located near each other on the same chromosome, they tend to be inherited together
stacks of thylakoids
When an error is missed, other enzymes remove and replace incorrectly paired nucleotides.
Enzymes that untwist the double helix at the replication forks, separating the two parental strands and make them available as template strands.
Multicellular haploid that's named for its production by mitosis of haploid gametes.
Humans have 46. Includes all cells of the body except gametes & their precursors.
1/3 types of animal cell junction
1/3 types of animal cell junction
Mating of two variants.
During Prophase I chromosomes attach to their non-sister chromatid counterparts and exchange DNA segments, doesn't occur in Mitosis.
Heterozygotes who though they don't show any phenotypic affects, could pass the recessive allele on to the next generation
All other chromosomes, humans have 46.
When an abnormal gamete unites with a normal gamete, the zygote will also have an abnormal number of a particular chromosome
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When one trait is dominant and the other is recessive
A framework of protein fibres extending throughout the nuclear interior
Organism's outward appearance/observable traits
Type of DNA replication in which the replicated double helix consists of one old strand, derived from the parental molecule, and one newly made strand.
Includes the nuclear envelope, the ER, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, various types of vesicles and vacuoles, and the plasma membrane.
Alternative versions of a gene
Bind to the unpaired DNA strands after parental strands separate, keeping them from reconnecting
Individual chromosomes that carry genes derived from 2 different parents.
When an incorrect segment of nucleotides is incorrect, they're cut out and refilled.
Coded information in the form of hereditary units.
A long cellular appendage specialized for locomotion
A gene located on the X chromosome
genetic map based on recombination frequencies
An mishap in the distribution of chromosomes by the meiotic spindle which the members of homologs dont move apart properly or don't seperate during meiosis II
A network of fibers extending through the cytoplasm
aneuploidy involving an extra/third chromosome
A region often located near the nucleus and is considered a 'microtubule organization center'
Any cell with 2 chromosome sets, doesn't include sex cells.
Specialized metabolic compartment bonded by a single membrane. Cooperates with chloroplasts and mitochondrion in certain metabolic functions

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