Gene Transfer

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Can you name the Gene Transfer?

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when genes are passed from an organism to its offspring
examples of vertical gene transfer
occurs between bacteria and are able to bring together prokaryotic DNA from different individual
examples of horizontal gene transfer
a prokaryote can take up and incorporate foreign DNA from the environment via
laboratory method of transformation
naturally, bacteria transform by way of _______ that recognize and transport DNA to undergo ________
The ______ the fragment, the harder it is to transform
movement of genes between bacteria by bacteriophages
_______ infects the donor cell
The ______ chromosome is broken down in transduction
the donor cell ______ after phage DNA is made and this releases phage particles
_______ can occur in transduction to create a genotype different from the donor and recipient cells
process where genetic material is transferred between bacteria
allows cells to connect and pull together for DNA transfer
required for sex pilus production
True or false: The F factor is always a separate plasmid?
The donor cell type is
Recipient cell type is
When DNA is transferred via conjugation, the recipient cell becomes
When the F factor is in the chromosome, the cell is called
In Hfr transfer, the recipient type becomes _____ but is ______
a plasmid that contains resistance antibiotic is
Two things contained in R plasmid
nucleotide sequences from 2 different sources, often 2 species, combined in vitro into the same DNA molecule
make recombinant DNA for practical purposes
manipulation of organisms or their genetic components to make useful products
measurement of gene expression of thousands of different genes with each dot = 1 gene
yields multiple copies of a gene or DNA segment
DNA cloning is used to
these insert the gene of interest into bacteria to allow it to make copies inside
a form of DNA cloning used to amplify certain size fragments rapidly
most methods of cloning use 2 things
True or false: plasmids replicate separately from chromosome?
Cloned genes are used for _____ and ______
used to make recombinant DNA
most useful restriction enzymes cut DNA in a ________ way, producing _____
sticky ends bond with complementary
enzye that seals covalent bonds between restriction fragments
The original plasmid is referred to as the
a DNA molecule that can carry foreign DNA into host cell and replicate, but lacks machinery to transcribe and translate
True or false: plasmid and genome are digested with the same restriction enzyme?
LacZ breaks down IPTG to a blue substance, which indicates
LacZ is interrupted by external sequence/gene of interest and results in white color to show
made using bacteria, collectio nof recombinant vector clones produced by cloning DNA fragments from an entire genome
a large plasmid that has been trimmed down and can carry a large DNA insert
only the subset of genes that are transcribed in the cells form which mRNA was isolate
Eukaryotic cells carry ____ dependent RNA Polymerase
used to make cDNA
a clone carrying the gene of interest can be identified with a nucleic acid probe having a sequence complementary to the gene
True or False: Cloned genes are never expressed as protein in any cells?
cloning vector that contains a highly active bacterial promoter
using these as vectors in eukaryotic cloning helps avoid gene expression problems
eukaryotic hosts can provide the ________ required by proteins
applying a brief electrical pulse to create temporary holes in plasma membrane
The 3 steps of PCR are
PCR produces _______ growing DNA population
To perform PCR you need these 3 things
uses gel as molecular sieve to separate nucleic acids or proteins by size
gel electrophoresis works by causing _____ molecules to move through the gel and molecules are sorted into bands by their ______
DNA cloning allows us to do 3 things
DNA fragments produced by restriction enzyme digestion of a DNA molecule are sorted by gel electrophoresis
combines gel electrophoresis with nucleic acid hybridization, can identify specific DNA fragments using labeled probes that hybridize to the DNA immobilized on a gel blot
short DNA fragments can be sequenced by
to sequence short DNA fragments, these attach to synthesized DNA strands of different lengths and are tagged
allows for quantitative analysis of gene expression
can be used to identify where or when a gene is transcribed in an organism
changes in the expression of a gene during embryonic development can be tested using these 2 things
combines gel electrophoresis of mRNA followed by hybridization with a probe on a membrane
in RT-PCR, reverse transcriptase is added to mRNA to make _____, which serves as the template for PCR amplification
To make cDNA you need these 3 things
uses fluorescent dyes attached to probes to identify the location of specific mRNAs in place in the intact organism
compare patterns of gene expression in different tissues, at different times, or under different conditions
mutations introduced into a cloned gene, altering or destroying function
gene expression can also be silenced using
Western blotting uses
Southern Blotting uses
Northern Blotting uses

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