What is the one word definition of the word 'Renaissance'? The Renaissance was between the years 1350 to 1550, give or take fifty years.
A high regard for human dignity and worth and a realization of individual potentiality created a new social ideal of the well-rounded personality or university person (also known a As the 15th century Florentine architect Leon Battista Alberti expressed it, 'Men can do all things if they will.'
True or False? The achievements of the Italian Renaissance were the product of an elite, rather than a mass, movement.
The military and commercial association that dominated Northern Europe was known as the? It had a monopoly on northern Europen trade in timber, fish, grain, metals, honey, and wines. It occasionally met with the influencial Venetian Flanders Fleet.
New industries such as printing, mining, and metallurgy began to rival the __ industry in importance in the 15th century. Examples of this industry include wool, silk, and glass.
One who organizes, operates, and assumes the risk in a business venture in the expectation of making a profit. These people quickly developed large mining operations to produce copper, iron, and silver in the 15th century.
The city of Florence regained its preeminence in banking in the fifteenth century, due primarily to the __ family. They ran the greatest bank in Europe, controlled interests in industrial enterprises, and were bankers of the papacy. Their banks collapsed in 1494.
What is the traditional tripartite division of European society based on heredity and quality rather than wealth or economic standing called? The First included the clergy, the Second included the nobility, and the Third included the peasants.
Which estate constituted the majority of the European society during the Renaissance? They constituted 85 to 90 percent of the European population.
Italian Baldassare Castiglione wrote this book, published in 1528. He expressed that nobles should possess fundamental native endowments (talents, grace, etc.), participate in military, bodily, and educational exercises (as in the arts), and follow a certain code of conduct.
The inhabitants of towns and cities, such as merchants and artisans, were known by this term.
Due to the shortage of workers after the Black Death, the Italians introduced this practice on a fairly large scale in the late 14th century. This practice led to an increase in illegitimate children.
After the Turks conquered the __ Empire in 1453, the Black Sea slave markets were closed to the Italian traders. This was one of many causes of the increase in the number of African slaves in the centuries to come.
Who determined the marriages of the Renaissance Era? Family was an important role in Renaissance Italy as old family names implied great status and prestige and the crime of one member burdened the entire family.
The size of the __ determined if the daughter and the family was moving upward or downward in society. Also about the family, a father's authority over his children was absolute until he died or formally emancipated them before a judge.
Which type of wife were more frequently pregnant in Renaissance Italy? Upper class or lower class? Remember that wealthy women gave their infants out to wet nurses and a preservation of the family name was a main goal for them.
Extramarital relationships were common because arranged marriages gave way to a lack of __ in the relationship. Also, there was often a large age difference between the husbands and wives and prostitution was prevalent.
Five major powers dominated the Italian peninsula: Milan, Venice, the Papal States, Naples, and __ . While the Sforza rulers controlled Milan and the Visconti rulers ruled Venice, the Medici controlled this city-state.
The Gonzaga family ruled Mantua; the d'Este family ruled Ferrara, and the Montefeltro family ruled __ . This city-state became a well-known cultural and intellectual center under Duke Federigo.
This daughter of the duke of Ferrara married Francesco Gonzaga and helped attract artists and intellectuals to the Mantuan court. She was an important political figure and has been called the 'first lady of the world.'
This concept led to an allliance system in Italy (Milan, Florence, and Naples versus Venice and the Papal States) after the Peace of Lodi in 1454, which ended almost a half-century The breakdown of this system or concept led to the invasions and domination by foreign powers.
The Italian Renaissance changed the concept of these political figures. To survive, many Italian states began to send these agents to each other to ferret out useful information. These people were now an agent of the territorial state rather than all of Christendom as it was before the Renaissance.
Who wrote a book called 'The Prince'? His concerns were the aquisition and expansion of political power as the means to restore and maintain order in his time. He advocated that political activity cannot be restricted by moral considerations. The prince must act for the state.
This term means the emphasis on and interest in the unique traits of each person. This was an important characteristic of the Italian Renaissance.
This term means the process of becoming more concerned with material, worldly, temporal things and less with spiritual and religious things. This was an important characteristic of the Italian Renaissance.
This was an intellectual movement in Renaissance Italy based on the study of the Greek and Roman classics. People of this movement examined grammar, rhetoric, poetry, moral philosophy or ethics, and history, based on the writings of ancient Greek and Roman authors.
Who was the father of Humanism? He was the first to characterize the Middle Ages as a period of darkness, promoting the mistaken belief that medieval culture was ignorant of Classical antiquity.
What was the intellectual movement of the Italian Renaissance that saw Cicero, who was both an intellectual and a statesman, as the ideal and held that humanists should be involved Leonardo Bruni wrote 'The New Cicero,' where he promoted the fusion of political action and literary creation in Cicero's life.
Lorenzo Valla, a humanist, attempted to purify medieval Latin and restore Latin to its proper position over the vernacular. He established a standard Latin language. What book did he write that promoted these ideas?
What is the revival of Platonic philosophy called? Marsilio Ficino attempted to synthesize Christianity and Platonism.
What is the intellectual movement that taught divinity is embodied in all aspects of nature? It included works on alchemy and magic as well as theology and philosophy.
What is the doctrine that equates God with the universe and all that is in it called? Hermetic writings often espoused this doctrine.
Who produced one of the most famous writings of the Renaissance, the 'Oration on the Dignity of Man'? A pupil of Marsilio Ficino, he offered this statement about unlimited human potential: 'To him it is granted to have whatever he chooses, to be whatever he wills.'
Pietro Paolo Vergerio wrote a treatise on education called 'Concerning Character.' This work stressed the importance of this type of study. These type of study includes history, moral philosophy, eloquence (rhetoric), letters (grammar and logic), poetry, mathematics, astronomy, and music.
Isotta Nogarola, Cassandra Fedele, Laura Cereta, and Joan of Arc were educated in a humanist fashion and were praised by male intellectuals. Which female is the odd one out?
Who was called, by some, the greatest historian between Tacitus of the 1st century and Voltaire and Gibbon of the 18th century with his 'History of Italy'? Humanism promoted the periodization and the secularizing of the writing of history.
Who invented the movable type printing press in the 1450s? The printing of books encouraged the development of scholarly research and the desire to attain knowledge. It also expanded the lay reading public as well as facilitated cooperation among scholars.
Odd Period Out? Massaccio's Tribute Money, Sandro Botticelli's Primavera, Donato di Donatello's David, Filippo Brunelleschi's Duomo, Gian Lorenzo Bernini's Ecstasy of Saint Theresa Renaissance style paintings worked out the laws of perspective and the organization of outdoor space and light by geometry and perspective.
The High Renaissance shifted the cultural center of Italy from Florence to where? This period is typically placed between 1480 and 1520.
Who painted the 'Last Supper'? This man stressed the need to advance beyond bodily realism and shifted the Renaissance's preoccupation to the idealization of nature or the attempt to generalize from realistic portrayal to an ideal form.
Who painted 'School of Athens'? In this painting, he reveals a world of balance, harmony, and order - the underlying principles of the art of the Classical world of Greece and Rome.
Pope Julius II commissioned this man to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in Rome in 1508. This man finished his story of the Fall of Man with nine scences from the book of Genesis in 1512. He is often addressed as 'Il Divino.'
True or False? Artists were still not accepted by upper class after the Renaissance.
Where was fresco painting more prevalent due to large wall spaces in the churches? Italian Renaissance or Northern Renaissance?
Which two painters painted 'Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride' and 'Adoration of the Magi,' respectively? Northern Renaissance artists paid more attention to detail and placed more emphasis on the emotional intensity of religious feeling than their Italian counterparts; however, they did not master the laws of perspective as well.
Who helped secularize music? For example, he was the first to use secular tunes to replace Gregorian chants as the fixed melody that served as the basis for the Mass.
What is a poem that is set to music with twelve lines written in the vernacular often about emotional or erotic love called? The music was used to portray the literal meaning of the text. A popular form of this poem is 'Deck the Halls,' notable for the fa-la-la.
What were the governments of France, England and Spain called at the end of the 15th century called? The rulers succeeded in re-establishing or extending centralized royal authority, suppressing the nobility, controlling the church, and insisting on the loyalty of all peoples living in their territories.
Which king was known as the 'Spider King'? He retained the taille as a permanent tax. He brought Burgundy, Anjou, Maine, Bar, and Provence under France's control. Many historians believe that he created a base for later development of a strong French monarchy.
What was the civil war in England called during the 1450s? The belligerants were the house of Lancaster (red rose) vs the house of York (white rose).
This man was duke of Richmond when he defeated the last Yorkist king, Richard III, at Bosworth Field in 1485.
Henry VII ended the private wars of nobility by abolishing the practice by which wealthy aristocrats maintained private armies of followers dedicated to the service of their lord. What was this practice called?
What court did Henry VII establish that controlled the irresponsible activity of the nobles? It did not use juries and allowed torture to be used to extract confessions.
In 1469, Ferdinand of Aragon married who to unite the kingdom of Spain? Both kingdoms maintained their own parliaments, courts, laws, coinage, speech, and customs. The royal council was stripped of aristocrats and filled with middle-class lawyers.
What did Spain introduce in 1478 that worked to guarantee the orthodoxy of converts to the Spanish Catholic Church, whose officials were picked by the monarchs? The 'Most Catholic' monarchs expelled all Jews in 1492, invaded Muslim Granada in the same year, and expelled all Muslims in 1502.
Which house took control of the Holy Roman Empire after 1483? They were especially successful in dynastic marriages.
Which of the following Eastern European nations obtained a strong monarchy in the 15th century? Poland, Bohemia, Hungary, All of the Above, None of the Above
What nation threw off the control of the Mongols in 1480 under Ivan III?
What empire was challenging Hungary, Austria, Bohemia, and Poland and threatening to control all of the Mediterranean Sea by the beginning of the 16th century?
John Wyclif, an Oxford theologian of England, was disgusted with clerical corruption, which led him to attack papal authority and medieval Christian beliefs and practices. He believed the Bible was a Christian's sold authority, and encouraged it be written in the vernacular. He rejected all practices not in Scripture. What was his movement called?
John Hus of Bohemia urged the elimination of the worldliness and corruption of the clergy and attacked the excessive power of the papacy. He was arrested, condemned as a heretic, and burned at the stake after the Council of Constance. What was his movement called?
Pope Pius II issued Execrabilis in 1460 to end what movement? This movement led to Sacrosancta (every Christian, including the pope was subject to its authority) and Frequens (regular councils would be ensured).
Which pope was known as the 'warrior pope'? Despite this, as the patron, he called for the building of Saint Peter's Basilica.
What was the appointment of family members to important political positions called? This word was derived from the regular appointment of nephews by Renaissance popes (i.e. Pope Sixtus IV).