In what century was the Black Death, which ravaged Europe's population and caused economic, social, political, and cultural upheaval in Europe? The most common type of plague of the Black Death was the bubonic plague, which was spread by fleas hosting the bacterium Yersinia pestis on black rats.
Which Asian tribe brought much of the Eurasian landmass under one rule, which facilitated long-distance trade? As a result, the spread of plague from Asia to Europe was made easier.
In which direction did the plague spread in Europe? Northward or Southward?
Who were the people who wandered from town to town flogging themselves with whips to win the forgiveness of God?
What were organized massacres of Jews called? Jews were accused of causing the plague by poisoning town wells. The fleeing of Jews led to Eastern Europe becoming home to large Jewish communities.
The English Parliament passed this law in 1351 in an attempt to limit wages to preplague levels and forbid the mobility of peasants. Manorialism was weakening as the conditions of peasants improved throughout Europe.
Which failed peasants' revolt in France in 1358 was caused by the destruction of normal order, the subsequent economic dislocation, and the ravages of the Hundred Years' War?
Who was the peasant who led a rebellion with preacher John Ball against King Richard II in the English Peasants' Revolt of 1381? The peasants were angered by the imposition of a poll tax by the fifteen-year-old king.
Who were the wool workers of Florence who revolted in 1378 over declining wages? They won concessions in government, but those rights were short-lived.
In 1328, the last son of the Capetian king, Philip IV, died without a male heir. Who was the closest male relative in line to the throne?
The immediate cause of the Hundred Years' War was a dispute over the Duchy of __ . The English monarch must pay homage to the French monarch as the Duke of this territory. Edward III refused to pay homage to French monarch.
Less powerful than the crossbow, the English used what type of bow because of its rapid speed of fire in the Hundred Years' War?
King Edward's son was known by this name. His campaigns were devastating and ravaged the French land, burning crops and entire unfortified villages.
Who won the Battle of Agincourt in 1415?
Which of the following was not a treaty of the Hundred Years' War? Treaty of Calais, Treaty of Bretigny, Treaty of Troyes
What is the eldest son of the French king's title? The son of Charles VI was weak and timid and unable to rally the French against the English, who were successfully advancing on French territory.
Who was the female who inspired the French army to liberating Orleans and returning Charles VII to his seat on French throne in 1429? 'The Maid of Orleans' was condemned as a heretic in the Inquisition and burned at the stake in 1431, at the age of 19.
In what year did the Hundred Years' War end? The use of the cannon, the death of England's best commanders, and the instability of the English government under King Henry VI led to French victory.
In the fourteenth century, what was the money payment for military service called? This replaced the obligation of military service in the lord-vassal relationship.
In the English Parliament of the 14th century, what was the upper house called? This body was composed of chief bishops and abbots and aristocrats who gained their positions through hereditary.
What was the French parliament of the 14th century known as? The parliament was still inefficient in the 14th century.
The hearth tax imposed by Philip VI of France during the Hundred Years' War was known as? Etienne Marcel attempted to bargain with Charles V. He made Charles V promise to not tax without parliament's permission and allow it to meet on a regular basis with the opportunity to participate in political decisions for the money for his father's ransom. Marcel's government was crushed.
Which French faction supported the English cause and the English monarch's claim to the French throne in the Hundred Years' War?
The end of what dynasty led to the failure of the Holy Roman Empire to obtain a centralized monarchy? This led the empire to consist of hundreds of virtually independent states.
Emperor Charles IV issued this decree in 1356. This document stated that four lay princes and three ecclesiastical rulers would serve as electors with the legal power to elect the emperor. Important is the fact that the position is not hereditary and weak as well.
Leaders of bands of mercenary soldiers in Renaissance Italy who sold their services to the highest bidder were known as __ .
What family had a large influence in the Duchy of Milan?
Wealthy merchant-industrialists were known by this in Florence. It literally meant 'Fat People.'
With the Ordinances of Justice, the city-state of Florence assumed this type of government. The signoria, a council of elected priors, bore the executive powers. The gonfaloniere, the standard-bearer of justice, was assisted by a number of councils with advisory powers. However by 1382, Florence had become an oligarchy under the guise of this type of government.
The Great Council was limited to 200 families in this city-state of Italy. This led to the formation of a hereditary patriciate. This republic was rich from commercial activity throughout the eastern Meditteranean and northern Europe. The formation of the Council of Ten in 1310 to be the real executive power led contemporaries to respect the government for its stability.
Pope Boniface VIII asserted his position on the fundamental issue of the universal sovereignty of the papacy vs the royal soverignty of the monarch in this important bull in 1302. Boniface was then captured by French forces and died from the shock of the experience, a victory for national monarchy over the papacy.
The papacy was moved to this French city between 1305 and 1377. This led many people to believe the pope was under the influence of the French monarch. Although, improving the papal bureaucracy, the pope was criticized for being so far away from Rome.
This female convinced Pope Gregory XI to move the papacy back to Rome. She was a mystic who believed that their primary instrument in achieving a mystical union with God was through the reception of the Eucharist.
What was the crisis in the late medieval church called when there were first two and then three popes? It was ended by the Council of Constance in 1417 with the election of Pope Martin V.
Who was the rector of the University of Paris and the author of Defender of the Peace? He denied that temporal authority was subject to the spiritual authority. He argued that the church was only on element of society and must confine itself solely to spiritual functions.
What was the movement in 14th, 15th century Europe that held that final authority in spiritual matters resided with a general church council, not the pope, called? It emeraged as a reponse to the papacy away from Rome and the period of multiple popes and was used to justify the summoning of the council of Constance.
The Black Death led the emphasis of good works, salvation, and purgatory. All these led to a growing emphasis on this church grant that would have a profound effect on the centurie
What the term for the immediate experience of oneness with God? Meister Eckhart sparked a movement for this action in western Germany
What is the mystical movement founded by Gerard Groote in the 14th century based on serving the needs of fellow human beings. Groote attracted a group of followers who came to be known as the Brothers of the Common Life, laypeople with no formal monastic vows but were regulated by quasi-monastic rules.
Which male posited a radical interpretation of nominalism? He asserted that all universals or general concepts were simply names and that only individual objects perceived by the senses were real. Reason could not be used to substantiate spiritual truths.
What term means 'written in the native language of a place'?
What was Dante Alighieri's masterpiece, written in the Italian language, called? It is the story of the soul's progression to salvation.
Petrarch's primary contribution to the development of the Italian language was?
What was the title of Boccacio's best-known work? It is about ten young people who flee to a villa to escape the plague and decide to while away time by telling stories. It reflects the easygoing, cynical postplague values.
What was Geoffrey Chaucer's best-known work? In the English language, it is a collection of stories told by a group of twenty-nine pilgrims journeying to the tomb of Thomas a Becket. He portrays (and criticizes) a wide range of English society.
In her book The Book of the City of Ladies, written in 1404, she denounced the many male writers who had argued that women needed to be controlled by men because women by their nat
Working in Florence, this painter of Lamentation was a forerunner of Italian Renaissance painting. His pictures conveyed three-dimensional depth.
As a result of the Black Death, a large number of artistic works came to be based on the art of dying, aslo known as __ . They concentrate on pain and death.
True or False? Late marriages were common after the Black Death.
After the Black Death, city authorities regulated this act by organizing brothels and forcing the 'workers' to wear special items of clothing to distinguish them from 'non-workers'
Preplauge medicine was grounded in the Classical Greek theory of the four __ . Post-plague saw the rise of surgeons to greater prominence, the betterment of medical textbooks, and increased attention by cities on public health and sanitation.
Giovanni di Dondi invited this important object. It included signs of the zodiac and struck on the hour. It revolutionized how people used time.
Eyeglasses, refined in the fourteenth century, were especially (expensive/cheap), while new paper was relatively (expensive/cheap).
This invention made castles, city walls, and armored knights obsolete. Its primary use was in cannons.
Which started first? The Avignon Papacy or the Hundred Years' War?