Home of the Pope during the 'Babylonian Captivity' of the Catholic Church from 1309-1376
Disease that wiped out a third of Europe's population in the 14th century
1853 war that ended the shaky European peace following the defeat of Napoleon
Famous novel by Miguel de Cervantes which is considered to be reflective of the decline of Spain as a European power in the 17th century
Dutch Renaissance humanist whose writings (i.e. 'The Praise of Folly') contributed to the religious upheaval of the 16th century
Political ideology which emerged in Italy after WWI; the movement's most famous leader was known as 'Il Duce'
Name given to WWI before WWII
The dynastic royal family which ruled the Holy Roman Empire for well over three centuries
Martin Luther attacked the sale of these by the Catholic Church in his famous 95 Theses
Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790; his forward-thinking policies rank him alongside Catherine the Great of Russia and Friedrich the Great of Prussia as an 'enlightened absolutist'
First wife of Henry VIII and mother to 'Bloody Mary' Tudor
Thomas Hobbes' 1651 treatise on human nature in which he claims that people are naturally selfish and that passion, not reason, governs human behavior
Catholic queen of Scotland whose imprisonment and execution at the hands of England's Protestant queen, Elizabeth I, outraged the Catholic countries of Europe and triggered an attempted Spanish invasion of England
Passed in Germany in 1935, these policies deprived Jews of citizenship and created severe restrictions on their activities
What Voltaire was referring to in his famous slogan: 'Crush the horrible thing'
Term for monarchs such as Elizabeth I and Henry IV who preferred to tend to matters of state rather than enforce a certain religious policy
The second in a series of French and Indian wars fought between England and France for control of North America
Priest whose supposed ability to heal Tsarevitch Alexei Romanov 's hemophilia led to his having a suspicious familiarity with the royal family, a factor that helped to trigger the Russian Revolution of 1917
Irish political party that began in the early 20th century as an advocate of Ireland's independence from Britain. Still exists today as a separatist movement seeking to remove Northern Ireland from the UK
Pact by the new National Assembly in Paris in 1789 to never disband until a constitution was written for France. Nicknamed for the unconventional spot in which the event took place.
Abbreviation of the formal name of Communist Party-controlled Russia and its satellite territories from 1922 to 1991
Opulent château whose construction was begun by Louis XIV in 1664. His descendants, the Bourbon monarchs of France, continued to live and hold court there until the French Revolution
Ascended the English throne along with his wife, Mary, with the consent of Parliament--an event now known as the Glorious Revolution
Monument in the Spanish province of Navarre which has been restored by the Jesuits in memory of a missionary who was born there
Southern Balkan state formed in 1918 after the collapse of Austria-Hungary. Violent ethnic conflict in the early 1990s caused it to break up, leading to the creation of modern-day Croatia, Serbia, Macedonia, etc.
Swiss religious reformer Huldrych whose theology was largely dependent on Martin Luther's