Physiology 2 Test 2

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Can you name the Physiology 2 Test 1 Part 2?

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Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
What term describes low osmolality causing excretion of excess water in urine?
One theory for autoregulation states that ___ cells in the ___ sense Na+ flow rate in the adjacent distal tubule and signal the afferent arteriole to constrict.
T or F; sodium is passively reabsorbed.
Where is water lost to the external environment?
What is the second lining of the glomerulus and its filtration size?
What is average Po?
If ΔE is negative for an anion, the passive flux is directed ___ the cell.
What are the most important substances of the Extracellular Fluid?
T or F; phosphate is actively reabsorbed.
Excitation of the supraoptic nuclei in the hypothalamus causes the posterior pituitary gland to release what?
Approximately, how many renal pelvises are there in each kidney?
What is another name for the renal pyramid?
Of the two capillary beds associated with the nephron, which is the high pressure bed?
Permeability of the collecting tubule is regulated by what?
What are the three general regions of the kidney?
What is the average excreted urine volume?
T or F; in glomerular filtration one may assume that Pob=0 because no proteins are filtered into the Bowman's capsule.
What are two primary processes for maintaining water balance?
What is the effective net filtration pressure?
What is the normal filtration coefficient?
Where does 65% of all reabsorption and secretion occur?
T or F; witihin the glomerular capillary, Pg is virtually constant.
Osmoreceptors in the ___ of the hypothalamus respond to changes in osmolality of ECF.
The renal tubules ultimately join together to form what?
What is the first lining of the glomerulus and its pore size?
What pressure rises steadily as plasma flows towards the efferent arteriole?
What is the term for pressure inside the capillaries that results from increased protein content in the veins and opposes filtration?
The proximal end of the renal tubule forms a double walled cup known as what?
Which nephron penetrates deeply into the medulla?
T or F; amino acids are passively reabsorbed.
What is the term for pressure developed due to the resistance of walls and fluid that has already filled the capsule, and also opposes filtration?
Blood flows through the ___ into the glomerular cappillary bed.
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
The kidneys remove ___ and ___ from the blood plasma to form urine.
What is the forcing of fluids/substances through a membrane by pressure?
What is the transport of substances from peritubular capillaries to tubular lumen called?
What is the average daily volume of fluid filtered into the Bowman's capsule?
An increase in the ratio of afferent arteriole resistance to efferent arteriole resistance will ___ Peff
What is average Pg?
What is the daily number of times that the entire plasma volume is filtered by the kidneys?
The total amounts of a substance ingested and produced must equal the total amounts ___ and ___.
Of the two capillary beds associated with the nephron, which is the low pressure bed?
What subunits make up the pelvis?
What are all of the parts of a nephron in order?
What is the first step in the production of urine?
Where do the largest collecting ducts empty into?
What are the two types of nephrons and their ratios?
Where is the distal tubule located?
T or F; Kidney function depends on the relationship between tubular and vascular components.
Angiotensin II stimulates the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal complex to produce and secret what hormone?
Where is urine formed?
What is the percentage of the volume filtered that escapes the body as urine?
What condition describes the reduction of general arterial pressure or inflammation of the glomeruli, decreasing urine output?
What is average Pb?
Which hormone enhances Na+ and water reabsorption by distal convoluted and collecting tubules?
What term describes high osmolality causing excretion of excess solute in urine?
What hormone increases reabsorption of calcium?
Which nephron does not penetrate deeply?
Within the control by JGC theory of autoregulation, two combined special feedback mechanisms called ___ provide the degree of GFR autoregulation required.
Approximately, how many nephrons are connected to each renal pelvis?
What term is used for a network of capillaries that descend around the lower portions of the loop of Henle?
T or F; the glomerulus has active transport.
What is a specialized region in the cortex of the kidney where the thick segment of the loop of Henle makes a contact witht the afferent and efferent capillaries of the glomerulus?
Criteria 3 of glomerular filtration states that the blood hydrostatic pressure in the ___ must be greater that that of the opposing pressure in the ___.
Increased rate of renal blood flow greatly increases GFR by increasing ___ and decreasing ___.
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Blood flows through the ___ into the peritubular capillary bed.
T or F; urea is passivley reabsorbed.
During sympathetic stimulation, the ___ arterioles are constricted preferentially.
What is the percentage of the volume filtered that is reabsorbed into the peritubular capillaries?
What is the name of the glomerulus and glomerulus capsule complex?
T or F; without ADH water remains in the tubular system.
Which nephron is close to the corticomedullary junction?
A change in arterial pressure from ___ to ___ mmHg hardly changes GFR.
What is the term for pressure inside the capillaries that promotes filtration of fluid?
What is the total volume of plasma?
T or F; Blood cells and plasma proteins do not get filtered through the kidneys.
What is the condition where hyper-permeability of the glomerular capillaries causes plasma proteins to pass from blood to filtrate, increasing urine output?
What are the two components of a nephron?
How much plasma volume remains within the renal blood vessels?
Criteria 2 of glomerular filtration states that the fluid within the Bowman's capsule must contain all ___ in virtually the same ___ as the ___.
Cell's function depends on (1) continuous supply of ___; (2) removal of ____ end products; (3) existence of stable ____ conditions of extracellular fluid.
What is the third lining of the glomerulus and its filtration size?
Under normal conditions is there a net change of body water?
Secretion of K+ is driven by the Na+-K+ pump in the ___.
Concentration of any substance in the ECF can be modified by what?
What is defined as the glomerular filtration rate in both kidneys per mmHg of effective filtration pressure?
Where is the thirst center located at within the hypothalamus?
Approximately how many nephrons are in each kidney?
What hormone decreases reabsorption of calcium?
What is the average GFR?
What is the outer layer of the kidney called?
T or F; glucose is actively reabsorbed.
What is the movement of certain components of glomerular filtrate back into the blood of the vasa recta?
What is the volume of blood plasma needed to supply the amount of the solute to the urine in unit time?
Criteria 1 of glomerular filtration states that the fluid within the Bowman's capsule must not contain ___.

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