Physiology 2 Test 2

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Can you name the Physiology 2 Test 1 Part 2?

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Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Permeability of the collecting tubule is regulated by what?
The proximal end of the renal tubule forms a double walled cup known as what?
Within the control by JGC theory of autoregulation, two combined special feedback mechanisms called ___ provide the degree of GFR autoregulation required.
What is the term for pressure developed due to the resistance of walls and fluid that has already filled the capsule, and also opposes filtration?
Where is the thirst center located at within the hypothalamus?
What is the movement of certain components of glomerular filtrate back into the blood of the vasa recta?
Under normal conditions is there a net change of body water?
Criteria 2 of glomerular filtration states that the fluid within the Bowman's capsule must contain all ___ in virtually the same ___ as the ___.
What is the average GFR?
Osmoreceptors in the ___ of the hypothalamus respond to changes in osmolality of ECF.
What are two primary processes for maintaining water balance?
How much plasma volume remains within the renal blood vessels?
What is the average daily volume of fluid filtered into the Bowman's capsule?
What is the effective net filtration pressure?
What is the normal filtration coefficient?
What are the three general regions of the kidney?
Criteria 1 of glomerular filtration states that the fluid within the Bowman's capsule must not contain ___.
T or F; without ADH water remains in the tubular system.
T or F; glucose is actively reabsorbed.
Cell's function depends on (1) continuous supply of ___; (2) removal of ____ end products; (3) existence of stable ____ conditions of extracellular fluid.
What are the most important substances of the Extracellular Fluid?
What term is used for a network of capillaries that descend around the lower portions of the loop of Henle?
What is the first step in the production of urine?
The total amounts of a substance ingested and produced must equal the total amounts ___ and ___.
What is another name for the renal pyramid?
What is the term for pressure inside the capillaries that results from increased protein content in the veins and opposes filtration?
What is a specialized region in the cortex of the kidney where the thick segment of the loop of Henle makes a contact witht the afferent and efferent capillaries of the glomerulus?
T or F; Blood cells and plasma proteins do not get filtered through the kidneys.
Where is the distal tubule located?
Where do the largest collecting ducts empty into?
What is the daily number of times that the entire plasma volume is filtered by the kidneys?
Approximately, how many renal pelvises are there in each kidney?
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Which nephron penetrates deeply into the medulla?
What is the volume of blood plasma needed to supply the amount of the solute to the urine in unit time?
Where is urine formed?
What is the first lining of the glomerulus and its pore size?
What condition describes the reduction of general arterial pressure or inflammation of the glomeruli, decreasing urine output?
What is the outer layer of the kidney called?
What is the third lining of the glomerulus and its filtration size?
The kidneys remove ___ and ___ from the blood plasma to form urine.
T or F; amino acids are passively reabsorbed.
What are all of the parts of a nephron in order?
What is the forcing of fluids/substances through a membrane by pressure?
Of the two capillary beds associated with the nephron, which is the high pressure bed?
Excitation of the supraoptic nuclei in the hypothalamus causes the posterior pituitary gland to release what?
What is the transport of substances from peritubular capillaries to tubular lumen called?
One theory for autoregulation states that ___ cells in the ___ sense Na+ flow rate in the adjacent distal tubule and signal the afferent arteriole to constrict.
What is the average excreted urine volume?
Which nephron is close to the corticomedullary junction?
What are the two components of a nephron?
Increased rate of renal blood flow greatly increases GFR by increasing ___ and decreasing ___.
A change in arterial pressure from ___ to ___ mmHg hardly changes GFR.
Approximately, how many nephrons are connected to each renal pelvis?
What term describes low osmolality causing excretion of excess water in urine?
Of the two capillary beds associated with the nephron, which is the low pressure bed?
What is average Po?
What is the second lining of the glomerulus and its filtration size?
T or F; witihin the glomerular capillary, Pg is virtually constant.
What pressure rises steadily as plasma flows towards the efferent arteriole?
Concentration of any substance in the ECF can be modified by what?
T or F; phosphate is actively reabsorbed.
Which nephron does not penetrate deeply?
The renal tubules ultimately join together to form what?
Where does 65% of all reabsorption and secretion occur?
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Where is water lost to the external environment?
Secretion of K+ is driven by the Na+-K+ pump in the ___.
What are the two types of nephrons and their ratios?
T or F; Kidney function depends on the relationship between tubular and vascular components.
Criteria 3 of glomerular filtration states that the blood hydrostatic pressure in the ___ must be greater that that of the opposing pressure in the ___.
T or F; in glomerular filtration one may assume that Pob=0 because no proteins are filtered into the Bowman's capsule.
What is the percentage of the volume filtered that is reabsorbed into the peritubular capillaries?
During sympathetic stimulation, the ___ arterioles are constricted preferentially.
What is the total volume of plasma?
What hormone decreases reabsorption of calcium?
If ΔE is negative for an anion, the passive flux is directed ___ the cell.
What is the name of the glomerulus and glomerulus capsule complex?
Angiotensin II stimulates the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal complex to produce and secret what hormone?
T or F; the glomerulus has active transport.
What is average Pg?
What is the term for pressure inside the capillaries that promotes filtration of fluid?
What term describes high osmolality causing excretion of excess solute in urine?
Which hormone enhances Na+ and water reabsorption by distal convoluted and collecting tubules?
Approximately how many nephrons are in each kidney?
What is defined as the glomerular filtration rate in both kidneys per mmHg of effective filtration pressure?
T or F; sodium is passively reabsorbed.
What hormone increases reabsorption of calcium?
What is average Pb?
An increase in the ratio of afferent arteriole resistance to efferent arteriole resistance will ___ Peff
Blood flows through the ___ into the peritubular capillary bed.
T or F; urea is passivley reabsorbed.
What is the condition where hyper-permeability of the glomerular capillaries causes plasma proteins to pass from blood to filtrate, increasing urine output?
What subunits make up the pelvis?
Blood flows through the ___ into the glomerular cappillary bed.
What is the percentage of the volume filtered that escapes the body as urine?

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