Physiology 2 Test 2

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Can you name the Physiology 2 Test 1 Part 2?

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Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
What term describes high osmolality causing excretion of excess solute in urine?
What is the volume of blood plasma needed to supply the amount of the solute to the urine in unit time?
T or F; Kidney function depends on the relationship between tubular and vascular components.
T or F; witihin the glomerular capillary, Pg is virtually constant.
Where does 65% of all reabsorption and secretion occur?
What is the forcing of fluids/substances through a membrane by pressure?
Within the control by JGC theory of autoregulation, two combined special feedback mechanisms called ___ provide the degree of GFR autoregulation required.
The proximal end of the renal tubule forms a double walled cup known as what?
Under normal conditions is there a net change of body water?
Which nephron is close to the corticomedullary junction?
Where is the distal tubule located?
How much plasma volume remains within the renal blood vessels?
What is a specialized region in the cortex of the kidney where the thick segment of the loop of Henle makes a contact witht the afferent and efferent capillaries of the glomerulus?
What subunits make up the pelvis?
What is the percentage of the volume filtered that is reabsorbed into the peritubular capillaries?
What is the average excreted urine volume?
The total amounts of a substance ingested and produced must equal the total amounts ___ and ___.
What is the transport of substances from peritubular capillaries to tubular lumen called?
What term describes low osmolality causing excretion of excess water in urine?
A change in arterial pressure from ___ to ___ mmHg hardly changes GFR.
What is the first lining of the glomerulus and its pore size?
What is the daily number of times that the entire plasma volume is filtered by the kidneys?
Approximately how many nephrons are in each kidney?
Approximately, how many nephrons are connected to each renal pelvis?
Permeability of the collecting tubule is regulated by what?
Of the two capillary beds associated with the nephron, which is the low pressure bed?
What is the percentage of the volume filtered that escapes the body as urine?
Osmoreceptors in the ___ of the hypothalamus respond to changes in osmolality of ECF.
What is the term for pressure developed due to the resistance of walls and fluid that has already filled the capsule, and also opposes filtration?
Which nephron penetrates deeply into the medulla?
What hormone decreases reabsorption of calcium?
Cell's function depends on (1) continuous supply of ___; (2) removal of ____ end products; (3) existence of stable ____ conditions of extracellular fluid.
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
What is the term for pressure inside the capillaries that results from increased protein content in the veins and opposes filtration?
Of the two capillary beds associated with the nephron, which is the high pressure bed?
T or F; amino acids are passively reabsorbed.
During sympathetic stimulation, the ___ arterioles are constricted preferentially.
Where is urine formed?
One theory for autoregulation states that ___ cells in the ___ sense Na+ flow rate in the adjacent distal tubule and signal the afferent arteriole to constrict.
T or F; the glomerulus has active transport.
Criteria 3 of glomerular filtration states that the blood hydrostatic pressure in the ___ must be greater that that of the opposing pressure in the ___.
What condition describes the reduction of general arterial pressure or inflammation of the glomeruli, decreasing urine output?
If ΔE is negative for an anion, the passive flux is directed ___ the cell.
T or F; sodium is passively reabsorbed.
What is the second lining of the glomerulus and its filtration size?
What are the two components of a nephron?
What is another name for the renal pyramid?
T or F; without ADH water remains in the tubular system.
Approximately, how many renal pelvises are there in each kidney?
Where is the thirst center located at within the hypothalamus?
Where is water lost to the external environment?
What is the name of the glomerulus and glomerulus capsule complex?
What are two primary processes for maintaining water balance?
The renal tubules ultimately join together to form what?
T or F; phosphate is actively reabsorbed.
Excitation of the supraoptic nuclei in the hypothalamus causes the posterior pituitary gland to release what?
Criteria 2 of glomerular filtration states that the fluid within the Bowman's capsule must contain all ___ in virtually the same ___ as the ___.
T or F; urea is passivley reabsorbed.
What is the movement of certain components of glomerular filtrate back into the blood of the vasa recta?
What is the outer layer of the kidney called?
What hormone increases reabsorption of calcium?
Secretion of K+ is driven by the Na+-K+ pump in the ___.
What is average Pb?
Which nephron does not penetrate deeply?
What is the average daily volume of fluid filtered into the Bowman's capsule?
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
T or F; glucose is actively reabsorbed.
Concentration of any substance in the ECF can be modified by what?
Increased rate of renal blood flow greatly increases GFR by increasing ___ and decreasing ___.
What is the normal filtration coefficient?
What is the total volume of plasma?
What is average Po?
What is average Pg?
Angiotensin II stimulates the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal complex to produce and secret what hormone?
T or F; in glomerular filtration one may assume that Pob=0 because no proteins are filtered into the Bowman's capsule.
What is the third lining of the glomerulus and its filtration size?
What are the two types of nephrons and their ratios?
What pressure rises steadily as plasma flows towards the efferent arteriole?
What is the average GFR?
The kidneys remove ___ and ___ from the blood plasma to form urine.
What are the three general regions of the kidney?
Blood flows through the ___ into the glomerular cappillary bed.
What is the effective net filtration pressure?
What are all of the parts of a nephron in order?
An increase in the ratio of afferent arteriole resistance to efferent arteriole resistance will ___ Peff
Criteria 1 of glomerular filtration states that the fluid within the Bowman's capsule must not contain ___.
What are the most important substances of the Extracellular Fluid?
Which hormone enhances Na+ and water reabsorption by distal convoluted and collecting tubules?
What is the term for pressure inside the capillaries that promotes filtration of fluid?
Blood flows through the ___ into the peritubular capillary bed.
What is the condition where hyper-permeability of the glomerular capillaries causes plasma proteins to pass from blood to filtrate, increasing urine output?
Where do the largest collecting ducts empty into?
T or F; Blood cells and plasma proteins do not get filtered through the kidneys.
What is defined as the glomerular filtration rate in both kidneys per mmHg of effective filtration pressure?
What term is used for a network of capillaries that descend around the lower portions of the loop of Henle?
What is the first step in the production of urine?

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