Physiology 2 Test 2

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Can you name the Physiology 2 Test 1 Part 2?

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Where is urine formed?
What is the total volume of plasma?
What is defined as the glomerular filtration rate in both kidneys per mmHg of effective filtration pressure?
The total amounts of a substance ingested and produced must equal the total amounts ___ and ___.
What term describes high osmolality causing excretion of excess solute in urine?
What is the forcing of fluids/substances through a membrane by pressure?
What is the transport of substances from peritubular capillaries to tubular lumen called?
Secretion of K+ is driven by the Na+-K+ pump in the ___.
What are all of the parts of a nephron in order?
What hormone increases reabsorption of calcium?
Approximately how many nephrons are in each kidney?
What is another name for the renal pyramid?
What is the condition where hyper-permeability of the glomerular capillaries causes plasma proteins to pass from blood to filtrate, increasing urine output?
During sympathetic stimulation, the ___ arterioles are constricted preferentially.
Angiotensin II stimulates the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal complex to produce and secret what hormone?
One theory for autoregulation states that ___ cells in the ___ sense Na+ flow rate in the adjacent distal tubule and signal the afferent arteriole to constrict.
What hormone decreases reabsorption of calcium?
Of the two capillary beds associated with the nephron, which is the low pressure bed?
Approximately, how many nephrons are connected to each renal pelvis?
An increase in the ratio of afferent arteriole resistance to efferent arteriole resistance will ___ Peff
T or F; in glomerular filtration one may assume that Pob=0 because no proteins are filtered into the Bowman's capsule.
What is the term for pressure inside the capillaries that results from increased protein content in the veins and opposes filtration?
What condition describes the reduction of general arterial pressure or inflammation of the glomeruli, decreasing urine output?
The renal tubules ultimately join together to form what?
What is the normal filtration coefficient?
What is the first lining of the glomerulus and its pore size?
Permeability of the collecting tubule is regulated by what?
What is the second lining of the glomerulus and its filtration size?
A change in arterial pressure from ___ to ___ mmHg hardly changes GFR.
Blood flows through the ___ into the peritubular capillary bed.
Which nephron does not penetrate deeply?
What are the most important substances of the Extracellular Fluid?
What is the movement of certain components of glomerular filtrate back into the blood of the vasa recta?
What is the first step in the production of urine?
What is the term for pressure developed due to the resistance of walls and fluid that has already filled the capsule, and also opposes filtration?
What is the daily number of times that the entire plasma volume is filtered by the kidneys?
What is the average excreted urine volume?
T or F; sodium is passively reabsorbed.
What are the two components of a nephron?
Where is the thirst center located at within the hypothalamus?
What term is used for a network of capillaries that descend around the lower portions of the loop of Henle?
Where does 65% of all reabsorption and secretion occur?
Which nephron penetrates deeply into the medulla?
Increased rate of renal blood flow greatly increases GFR by increasing ___ and decreasing ___.
Blood flows through the ___ into the glomerular cappillary bed.
What is the effective net filtration pressure?
T or F; Kidney function depends on the relationship between tubular and vascular components.
Under normal conditions is there a net change of body water?
T or F; Blood cells and plasma proteins do not get filtered through the kidneys.
What are the three general regions of the kidney?
Criteria 3 of glomerular filtration states that the blood hydrostatic pressure in the ___ must be greater that that of the opposing pressure in the ___.
What is the volume of blood plasma needed to supply the amount of the solute to the urine in unit time?
Which nephron is close to the corticomedullary junction?
What is a specialized region in the cortex of the kidney where the thick segment of the loop of Henle makes a contact witht the afferent and efferent capillaries of the glomerulus?
What is average Pg?
If ΔE is negative for an anion, the passive flux is directed ___ the cell.
What is the term for pressure inside the capillaries that promotes filtration of fluid?
What are two primary processes for maintaining water balance?
Within the control by JGC theory of autoregulation, two combined special feedback mechanisms called ___ provide the degree of GFR autoregulation required.
What is the percentage of the volume filtered that is reabsorbed into the peritubular capillaries?
What is the name of the glomerulus and glomerulus capsule complex?
What pressure rises steadily as plasma flows towards the efferent arteriole?
What is the outer layer of the kidney called?
Where is water lost to the external environment?
What are the two types of nephrons and their ratios?
Criteria 2 of glomerular filtration states that the fluid within the Bowman's capsule must contain all ___ in virtually the same ___ as the ___.
Criteria 1 of glomerular filtration states that the fluid within the Bowman's capsule must not contain ___.
Of the two capillary beds associated with the nephron, which is the high pressure bed?
What term describes low osmolality causing excretion of excess water in urine?
Cell's function depends on (1) continuous supply of ___; (2) removal of ____ end products; (3) existence of stable ____ conditions of extracellular fluid.
What is the average daily volume of fluid filtered into the Bowman's capsule?
Osmoreceptors in the ___ of the hypothalamus respond to changes in osmolality of ECF.
What is average Po?
What subunits make up the pelvis?
How much plasma volume remains within the renal blood vessels?
T or F; glucose is actively reabsorbed.
T or F; amino acids are passively reabsorbed.
What is the third lining of the glomerulus and its filtration size?
What is the percentage of the volume filtered that escapes the body as urine?
Concentration of any substance in the ECF can be modified by what?
Excitation of the supraoptic nuclei in the hypothalamus causes the posterior pituitary gland to release what?
What is average Pb?
Where do the largest collecting ducts empty into?
The proximal end of the renal tubule forms a double walled cup known as what?
Approximately, how many renal pelvises are there in each kidney?
Which hormone enhances Na+ and water reabsorption by distal convoluted and collecting tubules?
The kidneys remove ___ and ___ from the blood plasma to form urine.
What is the average GFR?
T or F; witihin the glomerular capillary, Pg is virtually constant.
T or F; phosphate is actively reabsorbed.
T or F; without ADH water remains in the tubular system.
Where is the distal tubule located?
T or F; urea is passivley reabsorbed.
T or F; the glomerulus has active transport.

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