Physiology 2 Test 2

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Can you name the Physiology 2 Test 1 Part 2?

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Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Which nephron does not penetrate deeply?
What term is used for a network of capillaries that descend around the lower portions of the loop of Henle?
Which nephron is close to the corticomedullary junction?
What is the daily number of times that the entire plasma volume is filtered by the kidneys?
T or F; amino acids are passively reabsorbed.
What is the term for pressure developed due to the resistance of walls and fluid that has already filled the capsule, and also opposes filtration?
The total amounts of a substance ingested and produced must equal the total amounts ___ and ___.
What is the second lining of the glomerulus and its filtration size?
T or F; the glomerulus has active transport.
What is the percentage of the volume filtered that is reabsorbed into the peritubular capillaries?
If ΔE is negative for an anion, the passive flux is directed ___ the cell.
What is the transport of substances from peritubular capillaries to tubular lumen called?
What pressure rises steadily as plasma flows towards the efferent arteriole?
Criteria 3 of glomerular filtration states that the blood hydrostatic pressure in the ___ must be greater that that of the opposing pressure in the ___.
What condition describes the reduction of general arterial pressure or inflammation of the glomeruli, decreasing urine output?
What is the movement of certain components of glomerular filtrate back into the blood of the vasa recta?
An increase in the ratio of afferent arteriole resistance to efferent arteriole resistance will ___ Peff
Where is the thirst center located at within the hypothalamus?
Osmoreceptors in the ___ of the hypothalamus respond to changes in osmolality of ECF.
Where does 65% of all reabsorption and secretion occur?
What is defined as the glomerular filtration rate in both kidneys per mmHg of effective filtration pressure?
What are the two components of a nephron?
T or F; sodium is passively reabsorbed.
T or F; urea is passivley reabsorbed.
Angiotensin II stimulates the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal complex to produce and secret what hormone?
What is the third lining of the glomerulus and its filtration size?
What is the condition where hyper-permeability of the glomerular capillaries causes plasma proteins to pass from blood to filtrate, increasing urine output?
T or F; phosphate is actively reabsorbed.
What is the volume of blood plasma needed to supply the amount of the solute to the urine in unit time?
What term describes low osmolality causing excretion of excess water in urine?
What hormone increases reabsorption of calcium?
The renal tubules ultimately join together to form what?
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
What are two primary processes for maintaining water balance?
T or F; glucose is actively reabsorbed.
The proximal end of the renal tubule forms a double walled cup known as what?
What are all of the parts of a nephron in order?
One theory for autoregulation states that ___ cells in the ___ sense Na+ flow rate in the adjacent distal tubule and signal the afferent arteriole to constrict.
The kidneys remove ___ and ___ from the blood plasma to form urine.
Which hormone enhances Na+ and water reabsorption by distal convoluted and collecting tubules?
What is the total volume of plasma?
Of the two capillary beds associated with the nephron, which is the low pressure bed?
Approximately, how many nephrons are connected to each renal pelvis?
T or F; Blood cells and plasma proteins do not get filtered through the kidneys.
What are the three general regions of the kidney?
Of the two capillary beds associated with the nephron, which is the high pressure bed?
What is a specialized region in the cortex of the kidney where the thick segment of the loop of Henle makes a contact witht the afferent and efferent capillaries of the glomerulus?
Under normal conditions is there a net change of body water?
Cell's function depends on (1) continuous supply of ___; (2) removal of ____ end products; (3) existence of stable ____ conditions of extracellular fluid.
What hormone decreases reabsorption of calcium?
Where is the distal tubule located?
What is the outer layer of the kidney called?
What is the average excreted urine volume?
T or F; without ADH water remains in the tubular system.
Where is water lost to the external environment?
Within the control by JGC theory of autoregulation, two combined special feedback mechanisms called ___ provide the degree of GFR autoregulation required.
What are the two types of nephrons and their ratios?
What is the name of the glomerulus and glomerulus capsule complex?
What is the term for pressure inside the capillaries that results from increased protein content in the veins and opposes filtration?
What is the average daily volume of fluid filtered into the Bowman's capsule?
Permeability of the collecting tubule is regulated by what?
Excitation of the supraoptic nuclei in the hypothalamus causes the posterior pituitary gland to release what?
What is the normal filtration coefficient?
T or F; in glomerular filtration one may assume that Pob=0 because no proteins are filtered into the Bowman's capsule.
A change in arterial pressure from ___ to ___ mmHg hardly changes GFR.
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
During sympathetic stimulation, the ___ arterioles are constricted preferentially.
Where do the largest collecting ducts empty into?
Approximately how many nephrons are in each kidney?
What is average Pg?
Where is urine formed?
Criteria 2 of glomerular filtration states that the fluid within the Bowman's capsule must contain all ___ in virtually the same ___ as the ___.
What is average Pb?
T or F; Kidney function depends on the relationship between tubular and vascular components.
Concentration of any substance in the ECF can be modified by what?
What is the forcing of fluids/substances through a membrane by pressure?
What is another name for the renal pyramid?
What is the average GFR?
What are the most important substances of the Extracellular Fluid?
Blood flows through the ___ into the glomerular cappillary bed.
What is the effective net filtration pressure?
Secretion of K+ is driven by the Na+-K+ pump in the ___.
Approximately, how many renal pelvises are there in each kidney?
What subunits make up the pelvis?
T or F; witihin the glomerular capillary, Pg is virtually constant.
Increased rate of renal blood flow greatly increases GFR by increasing ___ and decreasing ___.
What is average Po?
What is the term for pressure inside the capillaries that promotes filtration of fluid?
Which nephron penetrates deeply into the medulla?
Criteria 1 of glomerular filtration states that the fluid within the Bowman's capsule must not contain ___.
What is the percentage of the volume filtered that escapes the body as urine?
How much plasma volume remains within the renal blood vessels?
What term describes high osmolality causing excretion of excess solute in urine?
Blood flows through the ___ into the peritubular capillary bed.
What is the first step in the production of urine?
What is the first lining of the glomerulus and its pore size?

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