Cell and Molecular Bio Test 2

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Can you name the Cell and Molecular Bio Test 2?

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Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Cells that have a single lobed, big nucleus, ruffles, lysosomes, can't proliferate, participate in phagocytosis and antigen display.
A protein that binds tightly to specific epitopes for identification and elimination.
What are the products of TCA entry (total per glucose molecule)?
What is Oxaloacetate converted into?
Antibodies cross-linked with antigen can form a precipitate
Lipopolysaccharide, a molecule only found on some bacteria
What is the role of Plasma cells?
What is required for leukocyte activation?
Cells divide and become more numerous
What recognizes and binds only to the protein of interest?
What is the breakdown of amino acids?
Acetaldehyde causes a depletion of what?
The process of a cell engulfing solid particles.
What is the net yield per glucose molecule after the TCA cycle?
What is a family of lipids bound to oligosaccharides that have parts of their structure that are identical to lipooligosaccharides?
What is the process by which the immune system is supressed for antigens seen on a fairly regular basis due to eating?
High levels of lipids in the blood
What CD is mainly found on cytotoxic T-cells?
Where do T-cells mature?
What pathway utilizes normal cells to spark an immune response through interaction with cytotoxic T-cells?
What recognizes and binds to all primary antibodies from a given species?
How are fats converted into acetyl coa?
What are the reagents of glycolysis step 2
Macrophage-like cells with long spike and sheet like protrusions.
Putting the antigen on the outside of the cell to display to other cells.
What adjective describes the phenomena where you transcribe both parents copies of a particular protein?
Using energy to form glucose
A cell becomes more specific in its structure and function
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 3?
A discrete part of an antigen that is antigenic. There can be many of them.
A specific type of dendritic cell found in the epidermis.
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 1?
Monocytes in the tissue are called?
What are the products of glycolysis step 1
How many residues per turn are there on an antibody?
What provides an enhanced secondary immune response to a previously encountered antigen?
The vesicle in which the object now resides after phagocytosis.
How many ATPs are made from the NADH molecules from 1 molecule of glucose?
What is a substance used for storing energy as a carbohydrate in muscle and the liver?
What is the synthesis of amino acids?
Bind to sugars on bacteria
What condition involves a autoimmune attack on your joints?
Part of antibody where antigens are bound
How many ATPs are made from the FADH2 molecules from 1 molecule of glucose?
A systemic allergic reaction (as opposed to a localized allergic reaction)
What base is a part of ATP?
What is the breakdown of fat?
What is the the antigen in urine that’s detected in pregnancy tests?
What receptors only bind to antigens on display?
What are the products of glycolysis step 3
What CD is mainly found on helper T-cells?
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Granulocytes that cannot proliferate, and love phagocytosis.
What is another name for the Kreb's/citric acid cyle
Triglycerides can be split into what?
What are the effector cells for B-cells?
Amino acid with a Hydrogen group
has two identical light chains and two identical heavy chains
Self becomes recognized as foreign
A porous polymer, the voids in which are filled with a fluid
If the pH is lowered, amino acids protonate and the protein becomes more _____ overall
What is pyruvate converted into during fermentation?
What condition involves an autoimmune attack on pancreatic beta cells?
Cells that have large nuclei, can proliferate, extensive rough ER
Pyruvate is symported into the matrix with what?
What is a Adenine connected to a Ribose sugar called?
Cells responsible for cell mediated immunity
Weight/Height^2
Process of turning fermentable substrates into Lactate or Ethanol and CO2
What does acetaldehyde trigger secretion of?
What process induces apoptosis in T-cells that bind too well to self cells?
Excess Acetyl CoA can be converted into what?
Loss of electrons
What is imflammation of the intestine?
Anaerobic metabolic breakdown of a nutrient molecule without net oxidation
A self protein that is recognized as an antigen in autoimmune disease
What is another name for liver cells?
Where do B-cells go after production?
To respond to a wide array of antigens
Condition in which patient is 20% or more heavier than their ideal weight
Another name for stationary phase or gel.
Antibodies bind to and inactivate antigens
What is ethanol converted into by ADH?
Another name for constant domain
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 2?
Immunity that you are born with
ADP is antiported into the matrix using what substance?
The breakdown of glucose to yield energy
Process of turning oxidizable substrates into H20 and CO2
What is the name of the detergent that unfolds/denatures proteins in electrophoresis?
What condition involves a slowly progressing autoimmune attack on your brain and spinal cord?
Programmed cell death
Acetaldehyde increases generation of what?
Another name for variable domain
What is another name for electron transport?
What connects amino acids into linear chains?
Which CD is taken advantage of by HIV?
What does acetyl CoA dump the carbons onto in the first step of the TCA cycle?
Finger-like projections that suggest that the cell is reaching out and trying to reach something
What pathway utilizes B-cells to spark an immune response through interaction with helper T-cells?
What is the pH at which a protein's net charge is zero?
What is another name for scarring of the liver and poor liver function?
What are the three types of effector cells for T-cells?
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Antibody class that is stuck on surface of B cells; weird shape
Multiple antigens cross-link with antibodies
How many protons are transported across the inner membrane per molecule of NADH in Oxidative Phosphorylation?
What sugar is a part of ATP?
Help discriminate between types of pathogens
What class of MHCs is found on all nucleated cells?
Most common coenzyme
How many protons are required to flow through F0 to generate one ATP by F1?
Stands for Immunoglobulin
Part of antibody involved in cell binding
What are the products of glycolysis step 2
What are the reagents of glycolysis step 3
Amino acid with a Thiol group
Antibody class that is stuck on surface of B cells; y-shaped
What differentiates into T-cells and B-cells?
How many protons are transported across the inner membrane per molecule of FADH2 in Oxidative Phosphorylation?
A receptor whose ligand is an antigen
Affecting many nerves sytemically
What are the reagents of glycolysis step 1
String of amino acids
What is acetyl CoA converted into via the TCA cycle?
What are the final products from one molecule of glucose that goes through aerobic respiration?
Cells responsible for humoral immunity
OH- is antiported out of the matrix using what substance?
Electrophoresis separates molecules according to?
Are MHCs specific?
Can respond to the one antigen that is present rather than all antigens
Why use secondary antibodies?
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 4?
What class of MHCs is found on all antigen presenting cells?
Formation of acetaldehyde adducts yields what?
What condition involves an autoimmune attack on the intestinal wall that is exacerbated by ingestion of glutens?
What is the unit for 1/12th the mass of a Carbon atom?
Amino acid that is locked into a ring
What is the name of the process of converting lactate back into glucose?
If the pH is raised, amino acids de-protonate, and the protein becomes more _____ overall.
An enzyme system in the blood that can directly kill some foreign cells.
What process keeps only the T-cells that adequately bind to MHCs in self cells?
Fatty acids can be converted into what?
What is another name for a MHC?
How many hydrophobic amino acids does it take to cross the cell membrane theoretically?
What is the basis of lymphocyte production in the bone marrow?
Antibody class that is secreted from B cells; y-shaped
Glycerols can be converted into what?
Some substance capable of inducing an immune response.
How many hydrophobic amino acids does it take to cross the cell membrane in reality?
What transporter pumps viral proteins into the ER to be displayed on the surface?
How much does the stalk rotate when three protons pass through it?
For previously encountered antigens to give a faster response on subsequent encounters.
Cells respond directly and actively to eliminate antigens

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