Cell and Molecular Bio Test 2

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Can you name the Cell and Molecular Bio Test 2?

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Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
has two identical light chains and two identical heavy chains
What is the synthesis of amino acids?
A specific type of dendritic cell found in the epidermis.
What is another name for liver cells?
For previously encountered antigens to give a faster response on subsequent encounters.
What adjective describes the phenomena where you transcribe both parents copies of a particular protein?
What is ethanol converted into by ADH?
A self protein that is recognized as an antigen in autoimmune disease
A porous polymer, the voids in which are filled with a fluid
How many hydrophobic amino acids does it take to cross the cell membrane in reality?
String of amino acids
What is the name of the process of converting lactate back into glucose?
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 2?
Process of turning oxidizable substrates into H20 and CO2
How much does the stalk rotate when three protons pass through it?
What are the reagents of glycolysis step 2
Help discriminate between types of pathogens
Cells respond directly and actively to eliminate antigens
Antibody class that is stuck on surface of B cells; weird shape
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 1?
Weight/Height^2
What is a substance used for storing energy as a carbohydrate in muscle and the liver?
What connects amino acids into linear chains?
Finger-like projections that suggest that the cell is reaching out and trying to reach something
What is another name for the Kreb's/citric acid cyle
What recognizes and binds to all primary antibodies from a given species?
Condition in which patient is 20% or more heavier than their ideal weight
Using energy to form glucose
What base is a part of ATP?
To respond to a wide array of antigens
What process induces apoptosis in T-cells that bind too well to self cells?
Antibody class that is stuck on surface of B cells; y-shaped
What are the products of glycolysis step 2
What is another name for a MHC?
How many hydrophobic amino acids does it take to cross the cell membrane theoretically?
What is a family of lipids bound to oligosaccharides that have parts of their structure that are identical to lipooligosaccharides?
Pyruvate is symported into the matrix with what?
A systemic allergic reaction (as opposed to a localized allergic reaction)
Lipopolysaccharide, a molecule only found on some bacteria
Where do B-cells go after production?
What condition involves a slowly progressing autoimmune attack on your brain and spinal cord?
Cells that have a single lobed, big nucleus, ruffles, lysosomes, can't proliferate, participate in phagocytosis and antigen display.
What sugar is a part of ATP?
What differentiates into T-cells and B-cells?
Some substance capable of inducing an immune response.
Immunity that you are born with
How many residues per turn are there on an antibody?
Part of antibody where antigens are bound
If the pH is raised, amino acids de-protonate, and the protein becomes more _____ overall.
What condition involves a autoimmune attack on your joints?
What is another name for scarring of the liver and poor liver function?
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
What condition involves an autoimmune attack on pancreatic beta cells?
What is the role of Plasma cells?
Stands for Immunoglobulin
Formation of acetaldehyde adducts yields what?
What is pyruvate converted into during fermentation?
What does acetyl CoA dump the carbons onto in the first step of the TCA cycle?
ADP is antiported into the matrix using what substance?
Acetaldehyde causes a depletion of what?
High levels of lipids in the blood
Electrophoresis separates molecules according to?
Multiple antigens cross-link with antibodies
What is the breakdown of fat?
What is another name for electron transport?
What are the reagents of glycolysis step 3
Fatty acids can be converted into what?
How are fats converted into acetyl coa?
How many ATPs are made from the NADH molecules from 1 molecule of glucose?
A cell becomes more specific in its structure and function
The vesicle in which the object now resides after phagocytosis.
What class of MHCs is found on all nucleated cells?
What is the unit for 1/12th the mass of a Carbon atom?
The process of a cell engulfing solid particles.
Where do T-cells mature?
What is required for leukocyte activation?
How many ATPs are made from the FADH2 molecules from 1 molecule of glucose?
What are the reagents of glycolysis step 1
What are the effector cells for B-cells?
What is Oxaloacetate converted into?
Glycerols can be converted into what?
What is the breakdown of amino acids?
What is imflammation of the intestine?
How many protons are transported across the inner membrane per molecule of NADH in Oxidative Phosphorylation?
What provides an enhanced secondary immune response to a previously encountered antigen?
Process of turning fermentable substrates into Lactate or Ethanol and CO2
What process keeps only the T-cells that adequately bind to MHCs in self cells?
What is the basis of lymphocyte production in the bone marrow?
Why use secondary antibodies?
What is the process by which the immune system is supressed for antigens seen on a fairly regular basis due to eating?
What are the products of glycolysis step 3
What is the name of the detergent that unfolds/denatures proteins in electrophoresis?
What are the products of glycolysis step 1
Most common coenzyme
Cells that have large nuclei, can proliferate, extensive rough ER
A discrete part of an antigen that is antigenic. There can be many of them.
Putting the antigen on the outside of the cell to display to other cells.
A receptor whose ligand is an antigen
Another name for variable domain
What are the three types of effector cells for T-cells?
A protein that binds tightly to specific epitopes for identification and elimination.
Triglycerides can be split into what?
The breakdown of glucose to yield energy
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
An enzyme system in the blood that can directly kill some foreign cells.
Cells responsible for cell mediated immunity
Programmed cell death
What is a Adenine connected to a Ribose sugar called?
Which CD is taken advantage of by HIV?
Cells responsible for humoral immunity
What does acetaldehyde trigger secretion of?
What condition involves an autoimmune attack on the intestinal wall that is exacerbated by ingestion of glutens?
Anaerobic metabolic breakdown of a nutrient molecule without net oxidation
Antibodies bind to and inactivate antigens
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 4?
Monocytes in the tissue are called?
Affecting many nerves sytemically
Loss of electrons
What is the net yield per glucose molecule after the TCA cycle?
Cells divide and become more numerous
What is the pH at which a protein's net charge is zero?
What are the products of TCA entry (total per glucose molecule)?
What is the the antigen in urine that’s detected in pregnancy tests?
What are the final products from one molecule of glucose that goes through aerobic respiration?
Are MHCs specific?
If the pH is lowered, amino acids protonate and the protein becomes more _____ overall
What is acetyl CoA converted into via the TCA cycle?
What CD is mainly found on helper T-cells?
What pathway utilizes normal cells to spark an immune response through interaction with cytotoxic T-cells?
Granulocytes that cannot proliferate, and love phagocytosis.
OH- is antiported out of the matrix using what substance?
Macrophage-like cells with long spike and sheet like protrusions.
How many protons are required to flow through F0 to generate one ATP by F1?
What CD is mainly found on cytotoxic T-cells?
Amino acid with a Thiol group
Excess Acetyl CoA can be converted into what?
What class of MHCs is found on all antigen presenting cells?
Amino acid with a Hydrogen group
Can respond to the one antigen that is present rather than all antigens
Acetaldehyde increases generation of what?
Antibody class that is secreted from B cells; y-shaped
What receptors only bind to antigens on display?
Part of antibody involved in cell binding
What transporter pumps viral proteins into the ER to be displayed on the surface?
Self becomes recognized as foreign
What pathway utilizes B-cells to spark an immune response through interaction with helper T-cells?
Antibodies cross-linked with antigen can form a precipitate
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 3?
How many protons are transported across the inner membrane per molecule of FADH2 in Oxidative Phosphorylation?
Amino acid that is locked into a ring
What recognizes and binds only to the protein of interest?
Another name for constant domain
Bind to sugars on bacteria
Another name for stationary phase or gel.

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