Cell and Molecular Bio Test 2

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Can you name the Cell and Molecular Bio Test 2?

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Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Granulocytes that cannot proliferate, and love phagocytosis.
Cells divide and become more numerous
What are the products of glycolysis step 2
Some substance capable of inducing an immune response.
What is the net yield per glucose molecule after the TCA cycle?
A systemic allergic reaction (as opposed to a localized allergic reaction)
has two identical light chains and two identical heavy chains
Can respond to the one antigen that is present rather than all antigens
What are the products of TCA entry (total per glucose molecule)?
What CD is mainly found on helper T-cells?
Fatty acids can be converted into what?
What are the effector cells for B-cells?
What is the unit for 1/12th the mass of a Carbon atom?
What is Oxaloacetate converted into?
Bind to sugars on bacteria
A discrete part of an antigen that is antigenic. There can be many of them.
What does acetaldehyde trigger secretion of?
What are the products of glycolysis step 3
How are fats converted into acetyl coa?
Where do T-cells mature?
Antibodies bind to and inactivate antigens
What is the role of Plasma cells?
How many hydrophobic amino acids does it take to cross the cell membrane theoretically?
If the pH is lowered, amino acids protonate and the protein becomes more _____ overall
What is a Adenine connected to a Ribose sugar called?
How many protons are transported across the inner membrane per molecule of FADH2 in Oxidative Phosphorylation?
How many hydrophobic amino acids does it take to cross the cell membrane in reality?
Putting the antigen on the outside of the cell to display to other cells.
Help discriminate between types of pathogens
Another name for stationary phase or gel.
What is the the antigen in urine that’s detected in pregnancy tests?
Antibody class that is stuck on surface of B cells; weird shape
Immunity that you are born with
A receptor whose ligand is an antigen
What receptors only bind to antigens on display?
What is the breakdown of amino acids?
Finger-like projections that suggest that the cell is reaching out and trying to reach something
ADP is antiported into the matrix using what substance?
OH- is antiported out of the matrix using what substance?
Anaerobic metabolic breakdown of a nutrient molecule without net oxidation
What are the reagents of glycolysis step 1
How many residues per turn are there on an antibody?
Programmed cell death
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 2?
What is another name for liver cells?
What is the name of the process of converting lactate back into glucose?
How much does the stalk rotate when three protons pass through it?
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 1?
What is another name for scarring of the liver and poor liver function?
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 3?
Condition in which patient is 20% or more heavier than their ideal weight
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
What are the products of glycolysis step 1
What connects amino acids into linear chains?
What sugar is a part of ATP?
How many ATPs are made from the FADH2 molecules from 1 molecule of glucose?
Cells that have large nuclei, can proliferate, extensive rough ER
Part of antibody where antigens are bound
Cells respond directly and actively to eliminate antigens
Lipopolysaccharide, a molecule only found on some bacteria
What adjective describes the phenomena where you transcribe both parents copies of a particular protein?
The process of a cell engulfing solid particles.
What differentiates into T-cells and B-cells?
What is ethanol converted into by ADH?
What condition involves an autoimmune attack on pancreatic beta cells?
A cell becomes more specific in its structure and function
How many protons are transported across the inner membrane per molecule of NADH in Oxidative Phosphorylation?
What base is a part of ATP?
Why use secondary antibodies?
What class of MHCs is found on all antigen presenting cells?
What is acetyl CoA converted into via the TCA cycle?
Another name for variable domain
Formation of acetaldehyde adducts yields what?
Stands for Immunoglobulin
What are the final products from one molecule of glucose that goes through aerobic respiration?
What are the three types of effector cells for T-cells?
High levels of lipids in the blood
What is a substance used for storing energy as a carbohydrate in muscle and the liver?
How many protons are required to flow through F0 to generate one ATP by F1?
What process induces apoptosis in T-cells that bind too well to self cells?
Cells that have a single lobed, big nucleus, ruffles, lysosomes, can't proliferate, participate in phagocytosis and antigen display.
If the pH is raised, amino acids de-protonate, and the protein becomes more _____ overall.
Macrophage-like cells with long spike and sheet like protrusions.
An enzyme system in the blood that can directly kill some foreign cells.
For previously encountered antigens to give a faster response on subsequent encounters.
Are MHCs specific?
Acetaldehyde increases generation of what?
What provides an enhanced secondary immune response to a previously encountered antigen?
Glycerols can be converted into what?
Loss of electrons
Excess Acetyl CoA can be converted into what?
What is imflammation of the intestine?
Weight/Height^2
What class of MHCs is found on all nucleated cells?
What is the process by which the immune system is supressed for antigens seen on a fairly regular basis due to eating?
A protein that binds tightly to specific epitopes for identification and elimination.
What is pyruvate converted into during fermentation?
Where do B-cells go after production?
Process of turning oxidizable substrates into H20 and CO2
A specific type of dendritic cell found in the epidermis.
What process keeps only the T-cells that adequately bind to MHCs in self cells?
Cells responsible for cell mediated immunity
Process of turning fermentable substrates into Lactate or Ethanol and CO2
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
What CD is mainly found on cytotoxic T-cells?
String of amino acids
Antibodies cross-linked with antigen can form a precipitate
Self becomes recognized as foreign
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 4?
What are the reagents of glycolysis step 3
What transporter pumps viral proteins into the ER to be displayed on the surface?
Cells responsible for humoral immunity
What recognizes and binds only to the protein of interest?
How many ATPs are made from the NADH molecules from 1 molecule of glucose?
Triglycerides can be split into what?
What pathway utilizes B-cells to spark an immune response through interaction with helper T-cells?
Part of antibody involved in cell binding
What is another name for the Kreb's/citric acid cyle
What is another name for a MHC?
The vesicle in which the object now resides after phagocytosis.
What recognizes and binds to all primary antibodies from a given species?
To respond to a wide array of antigens
Pyruvate is symported into the matrix with what?
A porous polymer, the voids in which are filled with a fluid
What is required for leukocyte activation?
What pathway utilizes normal cells to spark an immune response through interaction with cytotoxic T-cells?
What is the breakdown of fat?
The breakdown of glucose to yield energy
What is a family of lipids bound to oligosaccharides that have parts of their structure that are identical to lipooligosaccharides?
Amino acid with a Thiol group
Acetaldehyde causes a depletion of what?
Antibody class that is stuck on surface of B cells; y-shaped
What is another name for electron transport?
What does acetyl CoA dump the carbons onto in the first step of the TCA cycle?
Antibody class that is secreted from B cells; y-shaped
What condition involves a slowly progressing autoimmune attack on your brain and spinal cord?
Affecting many nerves sytemically
Using energy to form glucose
Another name for constant domain
Amino acid with a Hydrogen group
What condition involves a autoimmune attack on your joints?
Amino acid that is locked into a ring
What are the reagents of glycolysis step 2
Multiple antigens cross-link with antibodies
Monocytes in the tissue are called?
What condition involves an autoimmune attack on the intestinal wall that is exacerbated by ingestion of glutens?
Electrophoresis separates molecules according to?
A self protein that is recognized as an antigen in autoimmune disease
What is the synthesis of amino acids?
What is the basis of lymphocyte production in the bone marrow?
Which CD is taken advantage of by HIV?
What is the pH at which a protein's net charge is zero?
Most common coenzyme
What is the name of the detergent that unfolds/denatures proteins in electrophoresis?

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