Science / Cell and Molecular Bio Test 2

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Can you name the Cell and Molecular Bio Test 2?

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Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
What is the the antigen in urine that’s detected in pregnancy tests?
What is the breakdown of fat?
Antibody class that is stuck on surface of B cells; y-shaped
What recognizes and binds to all primary antibodies from a given species?
What recognizes and binds only to the protein of interest?
Formation of acetaldehyde adducts yields what?
What are the reagents of glycolysis step 2
Loss of electrons
A porous polymer, the voids in which are filled with a fluid
What is imflammation of the intestine?
Immunity that you are born with
How many hydrophobic amino acids does it take to cross the cell membrane in reality?
A receptor whose ligand is an antigen
Stands for Immunoglobulin
Why use secondary antibodies?
What condition involves a autoimmune attack on your joints?
What is the unit for 1/12th the mass of a Carbon atom?
What are the final products from one molecule of glucose that goes through aerobic respiration?
A discrete part of an antigen that is antigenic. There can be many of them.
Triglycerides can be split into what?
A self protein that is recognized as an antigen in autoimmune disease
Cells respond directly and actively to eliminate antigens
Glycerols can be converted into what?
How much does the stalk rotate when three protons pass through it?
What is required for leukocyte activation?
How many hydrophobic amino acids does it take to cross the cell membrane theoretically?
How many ATPs are made from the NADH molecules from 1 molecule of glucose?
Electrophoresis separates molecules according to?
Excess Acetyl CoA can be converted into what?
What is the synthesis of amino acids?
Affecting many nerves sytemically
What are the products of glycolysis step 2
What CD is mainly found on helper T-cells?
What receptors only bind to antigens on display?
What is another name for scarring of the liver and poor liver function?
High levels of lipids in the blood
OH- is antiported out of the matrix using what substance?
What process induces apoptosis in T-cells that bind too well to self cells?
If the pH is lowered, amino acids protonate and the protein becomes more _____ overall
What pathway utilizes normal cells to spark an immune response through interaction with cytotoxic T-cells?
Cells that have a single lobed, big nucleus, ruffles, lysosomes, can't proliferate, participate in phagocytosis and antigen display.
Cells that have large nuclei, can proliferate, extensive rough ER
Finger-like projections that suggest that the cell is reaching out and trying to reach something
What condition involves an autoimmune attack on the intestinal wall that is exacerbated by ingestion of glutens?
What class of MHCs is found on all antigen presenting cells?
Amino acid that is locked into a ring
What are the reagents of glycolysis step 1
What process keeps only the T-cells that adequately bind to MHCs in self cells?
Antibody class that is secreted from B cells; y-shaped
Process of turning oxidizable substrates into H20 and CO2
What are the products of glycolysis step 1
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Antibodies bind to and inactivate antigens
How many protons are required to flow through F0 to generate one ATP by F1?
Most common coenzyme
Acetaldehyde causes a depletion of what?
Putting the antigen on the outside of the cell to display to other cells.
Pyruvate is symported into the matrix with what?
Where do T-cells mature?
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 4?
Bind to sugars on bacteria
The breakdown of glucose to yield energy
Part of antibody where antigens are bound
What transporter pumps viral proteins into the ER to be displayed on the surface?
What are the products of TCA entry (total per glucose molecule)?
What does acetyl CoA dump the carbons onto in the first step of the TCA cycle?
Help discriminate between types of pathogens
What is the basis of lymphocyte production in the bone marrow?
What is a Adenine connected to a Ribose sugar called?
Condition in which patient is 20% or more heavier than their ideal weight
What is the name of the process of converting lactate back into glucose?
Can respond to the one antigen that is present rather than all antigens
Acetaldehyde increases generation of what?
How many protons are transported across the inner membrane per molecule of FADH2 in Oxidative Phosphorylation?
Part of antibody involved in cell binding
What sugar is a part of ATP?
Amino acid with a Thiol group
Another name for stationary phase or gel.
Monocytes in the tissue are called?
The vesicle in which the object now resides after phagocytosis.
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 2?
What pathway utilizes B-cells to spark an immune response through interaction with helper T-cells?
Cells responsible for humoral immunity
How are fats converted into acetyl coa?
What is the name of the detergent that unfolds/denatures proteins in electrophoresis?
What are the products of glycolysis step 3
Multiple antigens cross-link with antibodies
Are MHCs specific?
What condition involves an autoimmune attack on pancreatic beta cells?
Self becomes recognized as foreign
What is a substance used for storing energy as a carbohydrate in muscle and the liver?
Antibodies cross-linked with antigen can form a precipitate
A protein that binds tightly to specific epitopes for identification and elimination.
How many ATPs are made from the FADH2 molecules from 1 molecule of glucose?
Cells responsible for cell mediated immunity
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 1?
Amino acid with a Hydrogen group
What differentiates into T-cells and B-cells?
What is another name for a MHC?
Programmed cell death
Another name for constant domain
What adjective describes the phenomena where you transcribe both parents copies of a particular protein?
Where do B-cells go after production?
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
What base is a part of ATP?
Granulocytes that cannot proliferate, and love phagocytosis.
String of amino acids
What connects amino acids into linear chains?
How many residues per turn are there on an antibody?
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 3?
If the pH is raised, amino acids de-protonate, and the protein becomes more _____ overall.
Using energy to form glucose
Lipopolysaccharide, a molecule only found on some bacteria
What is acetyl CoA converted into via the TCA cycle?
What is another name for liver cells?
An enzyme system in the blood that can directly kill some foreign cells.
A systemic allergic reaction (as opposed to a localized allergic reaction)
What is pyruvate converted into during fermentation?
Another name for variable domain
How many protons are transported across the inner membrane per molecule of NADH in Oxidative Phosphorylation?
Macrophage-like cells with long spike and sheet like protrusions.
What is another name for the Kreb's/citric acid cyle
What is ethanol converted into by ADH?
A cell becomes more specific in its structure and function
What is the process by which the immune system is supressed for antigens seen on a fairly regular basis due to eating?
What is Oxaloacetate converted into?
What condition involves a slowly progressing autoimmune attack on your brain and spinal cord?
Anaerobic metabolic breakdown of a nutrient molecule without net oxidation
What provides an enhanced secondary immune response to a previously encountered antigen?
Some substance capable of inducing an immune response.
What is the net yield per glucose molecule after the TCA cycle?
Weight/Height^2
What class of MHCs is found on all nucleated cells?
What are the effector cells for B-cells?
Cells divide and become more numerous
What is the breakdown of amino acids?
Process of turning fermentable substrates into Lactate or Ethanol and CO2
What CD is mainly found on cytotoxic T-cells?
What does acetaldehyde trigger secretion of?
Which CD is taken advantage of by HIV?
Antibody class that is stuck on surface of B cells; weird shape
What is a family of lipids bound to oligosaccharides that have parts of their structure that are identical to lipooligosaccharides?
A specific type of dendritic cell found in the epidermis.
Fatty acids can be converted into what?
For previously encountered antigens to give a faster response on subsequent encounters.
What are the reagents of glycolysis step 3
What is another name for electron transport?
The process of a cell engulfing solid particles.
What are the three types of effector cells for T-cells?
What is the role of Plasma cells?
ADP is antiported into the matrix using what substance?
To respond to a wide array of antigens
has two identical light chains and two identical heavy chains
What is the pH at which a protein's net charge is zero?

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