Science / Cell and Molecular Bio Test 2

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Can you name the Cell and Molecular Bio Test 2?

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Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
OH- is antiported out of the matrix using what substance?
Putting the antigen on the outside of the cell to display to other cells.
How many protons are transported across the inner membrane per molecule of NADH in Oxidative Phosphorylation?
Where do T-cells mature?
What is the pH at which a protein's net charge is zero?
What are the reagents of glycolysis step 3
A self protein that is recognized as an antigen in autoimmune disease
What connects amino acids into linear chains?
Some substance capable of inducing an immune response.
To respond to a wide array of antigens
Pyruvate is symported into the matrix with what?
What class of MHCs is found on all antigen presenting cells?
What is a substance used for storing energy as a carbohydrate in muscle and the liver?
What is imflammation of the intestine?
Amino acid that is locked into a ring
What is the unit for 1/12th the mass of a Carbon atom?
Condition in which patient is 20% or more heavier than their ideal weight
Help discriminate between types of pathogens
What is the basis of lymphocyte production in the bone marrow?
Another name for constant domain
The process of a cell engulfing solid particles.
What receptors only bind to antigens on display?
How many protons are required to flow through F0 to generate one ATP by F1?
A porous polymer, the voids in which are filled with a fluid
What is ethanol converted into by ADH?
What is another name for the Kreb's/citric acid cyle
How many residues per turn are there on an antibody?
An enzyme system in the blood that can directly kill some foreign cells.
What are the products of glycolysis step 1
Another name for variable domain
What is the name of the process of converting lactate back into glucose?
What is Oxaloacetate converted into?
What class of MHCs is found on all nucleated cells?
Most common coenzyme
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 3?
What condition involves an autoimmune attack on pancreatic beta cells?
The breakdown of glucose to yield energy
A cell becomes more specific in its structure and function
What does acetyl CoA dump the carbons onto in the first step of the TCA cycle?
A protein that binds tightly to specific epitopes for identification and elimination.
What is another name for liver cells?
Process of turning fermentable substrates into Lactate or Ethanol and CO2
Cells responsible for cell mediated immunity
What does acetaldehyde trigger secretion of?
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 2?
What is the process by which the immune system is supressed for antigens seen on a fairly regular basis due to eating?
What transporter pumps viral proteins into the ER to be displayed on the surface?
Amino acid with a Hydrogen group
A systemic allergic reaction (as opposed to a localized allergic reaction)
What base is a part of ATP?
Glycerols can be converted into what?
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
What are the final products from one molecule of glucose that goes through aerobic respiration?
Fatty acids can be converted into what?
Another name for stationary phase or gel.
Self becomes recognized as foreign
How many ATPs are made from the FADH2 molecules from 1 molecule of glucose?
What are the effector cells for B-cells?
What sugar is a part of ATP?
Loss of electrons
Immunity that you are born with
Granulocytes that cannot proliferate, and love phagocytosis.
Part of antibody where antigens are bound
Part of antibody involved in cell binding
Finger-like projections that suggest that the cell is reaching out and trying to reach something
Are MHCs specific?
What is required for leukocyte activation?
What provides an enhanced secondary immune response to a previously encountered antigen?
Triglycerides can be split into what?
Antibody class that is stuck on surface of B cells; y-shaped
A discrete part of an antigen that is antigenic. There can be many of them.
How much does the stalk rotate when three protons pass through it?
Anaerobic metabolic breakdown of a nutrient molecule without net oxidation
Antibodies cross-linked with antigen can form a precipitate
Process of turning oxidizable substrates into H20 and CO2
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 1?
Multiple antigens cross-link with antibodies
Cells that have large nuclei, can proliferate, extensive rough ER
How many hydrophobic amino acids does it take to cross the cell membrane theoretically?
What pathway utilizes B-cells to spark an immune response through interaction with helper T-cells?
What are the reagents of glycolysis step 2
What is another name for electron transport?
What is another name for scarring of the liver and poor liver function?
What are the products of glycolysis step 3
Affecting many nerves sytemically
Cells divide and become more numerous
What differentiates into T-cells and B-cells?
What process keeps only the T-cells that adequately bind to MHCs in self cells?
Macrophage-like cells with long spike and sheet like protrusions.
What condition involves an autoimmune attack on the intestinal wall that is exacerbated by ingestion of glutens?
What is the the antigen in urine that’s detected in pregnancy tests?
How many hydrophobic amino acids does it take to cross the cell membrane in reality?
What condition involves a autoimmune attack on your joints?
What is the name of the detergent that unfolds/denatures proteins in electrophoresis?
What is another name for a MHC?
What are the products of TCA entry (total per glucose molecule)?
What are the three types of effector cells for T-cells?
What recognizes and binds only to the protein of interest?
For previously encountered antigens to give a faster response on subsequent encounters.
Antibodies bind to and inactivate antigens
Cells that have a single lobed, big nucleus, ruffles, lysosomes, can't proliferate, participate in phagocytosis and antigen display.
has two identical light chains and two identical heavy chains
Where do B-cells go after production?
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
What is the breakdown of amino acids?
If the pH is raised, amino acids de-protonate, and the protein becomes more _____ overall.
Bind to sugars on bacteria
Why use secondary antibodies?
The vesicle in which the object now resides after phagocytosis.
String of amino acids
Can respond to the one antigen that is present rather than all antigens
Amino acid with a Thiol group
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 4?
Cells responsible for humoral immunity
What recognizes and binds to all primary antibodies from a given species?
Programmed cell death
A receptor whose ligand is an antigen
What condition involves a slowly progressing autoimmune attack on your brain and spinal cord?
What is a family of lipids bound to oligosaccharides that have parts of their structure that are identical to lipooligosaccharides?
What is the role of Plasma cells?
High levels of lipids in the blood
What is the net yield per glucose molecule after the TCA cycle?
Electrophoresis separates molecules according to?
What are the reagents of glycolysis step 1
If the pH is lowered, amino acids protonate and the protein becomes more _____ overall
Monocytes in the tissue are called?
What adjective describes the phenomena where you transcribe both parents copies of a particular protein?
What CD is mainly found on helper T-cells?
Stands for Immunoglobulin
What is pyruvate converted into during fermentation?
What is a Adenine connected to a Ribose sugar called?
How are fats converted into acetyl coa?
Using energy to form glucose
Antibody class that is stuck on surface of B cells; weird shape
Cells respond directly and actively to eliminate antigens
Antibody class that is secreted from B cells; y-shaped
Weight/Height^2
Formation of acetaldehyde adducts yields what?
How many protons are transported across the inner membrane per molecule of FADH2 in Oxidative Phosphorylation?
A specific type of dendritic cell found in the epidermis.
What CD is mainly found on cytotoxic T-cells?
How many ATPs are made from the NADH molecules from 1 molecule of glucose?
What is the synthesis of amino acids?
What process induces apoptosis in T-cells that bind too well to self cells?
Acetaldehyde causes a depletion of what?
Lipopolysaccharide, a molecule only found on some bacteria
What pathway utilizes normal cells to spark an immune response through interaction with cytotoxic T-cells?
What is the breakdown of fat?
Excess Acetyl CoA can be converted into what?
What is acetyl CoA converted into via the TCA cycle?
Which CD is taken advantage of by HIV?
Acetaldehyde increases generation of what?
ADP is antiported into the matrix using what substance?
What are the products of glycolysis step 2

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