Cell and Molecular Bio Test 2

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Can you name the Cell and Molecular Bio Test 2?

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Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Another name for constant domain
Excess Acetyl CoA can be converted into what?
How many hydrophobic amino acids does it take to cross the cell membrane in reality?
Help discriminate between types of pathogens
What is a Adenine connected to a Ribose sugar called?
What does acetyl CoA dump the carbons onto in the first step of the TCA cycle?
What is the pH at which a protein's net charge is zero?
What is the process by which the immune system is supressed for antigens seen on a fairly regular basis due to eating?
What class of MHCs is found on all antigen presenting cells?
How many residues per turn are there on an antibody?
A porous polymer, the voids in which are filled with a fluid
Loss of electrons
A receptor whose ligand is an antigen
What is another name for electron transport?
Finger-like projections that suggest that the cell is reaching out and trying to reach something
What is the role of Plasma cells?
What are the products of glycolysis step 2
What are the reagents of glycolysis step 1
String of amino acids
Putting the antigen on the outside of the cell to display to other cells.
What is required for leukocyte activation?
What sugar is a part of ATP?
What are the reagents of glycolysis step 3
How are fats converted into acetyl coa?
A discrete part of an antigen that is antigenic. There can be many of them.
Amino acid with a Thiol group
What is imflammation of the intestine?
Glycerols can be converted into what?
Acetaldehyde causes a depletion of what?
What process keeps only the T-cells that adequately bind to MHCs in self cells?
If the pH is raised, amino acids de-protonate, and the protein becomes more _____ overall.
Antibodies bind to and inactivate antigens
What condition involves a slowly progressing autoimmune attack on your brain and spinal cord?
What is another name for liver cells?
What pathway utilizes B-cells to spark an immune response through interaction with helper T-cells?
What CD is mainly found on cytotoxic T-cells?
Macrophage-like cells with long spike and sheet like protrusions.
If the pH is lowered, amino acids protonate and the protein becomes more _____ overall
Cells respond directly and actively to eliminate antigens
Part of antibody where antigens are bound
What receptors only bind to antigens on display?
What is the unit for 1/12th the mass of a Carbon atom?
The process of a cell engulfing solid particles.
Which CD is taken advantage of by HIV?
What is Oxaloacetate converted into?
What are the final products from one molecule of glucose that goes through aerobic respiration?
What condition involves an autoimmune attack on the intestinal wall that is exacerbated by ingestion of glutens?
What is the breakdown of amino acids?
Antibody class that is stuck on surface of B cells; y-shaped
What recognizes and binds to all primary antibodies from a given species?
Antibody class that is stuck on surface of B cells; weird shape
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 1?
What provides an enhanced secondary immune response to a previously encountered antigen?
A self protein that is recognized as an antigen in autoimmune disease
What recognizes and binds only to the protein of interest?
Another name for variable domain
What condition involves a autoimmune attack on your joints?
What adjective describes the phenomena where you transcribe both parents copies of a particular protein?
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 4?
Programmed cell death
How many protons are transported across the inner membrane per molecule of FADH2 in Oxidative Phosphorylation?
What is a substance used for storing energy as a carbohydrate in muscle and the liver?
What differentiates into T-cells and B-cells?
What is the breakdown of fat?
Acetaldehyde increases generation of what?
has two identical light chains and two identical heavy chains
What are the products of glycolysis step 3
Amino acid that is locked into a ring
What process induces apoptosis in T-cells that bind too well to self cells?
Cells responsible for cell mediated immunity
What is another name for a MHC?
An enzyme system in the blood that can directly kill some foreign cells.
What base is a part of ATP?
Where do T-cells mature?
What is the synthesis of amino acids?
A specific type of dendritic cell found in the epidermis.
Amino acid with a Hydrogen group
Weight/Height^2
What is another name for scarring of the liver and poor liver function?
A protein that binds tightly to specific epitopes for identification and elimination.
What is the the antigen in urine that’s detected in pregnancy tests?
Cells that have large nuclei, can proliferate, extensive rough ER
What are the products of glycolysis step 1
Electrophoresis separates molecules according to?
Most common coenzyme
Anaerobic metabolic breakdown of a nutrient molecule without net oxidation
Cells divide and become more numerous
How many hydrophobic amino acids does it take to cross the cell membrane theoretically?
Granulocytes that cannot proliferate, and love phagocytosis.
Cells that have a single lobed, big nucleus, ruffles, lysosomes, can't proliferate, participate in phagocytosis and antigen display.
The breakdown of glucose to yield energy
How many ATPs are made from the FADH2 molecules from 1 molecule of glucose?
What is the basis of lymphocyte production in the bone marrow?
How many ATPs are made from the NADH molecules from 1 molecule of glucose?
ADP is antiported into the matrix using what substance?
Lipopolysaccharide, a molecule only found on some bacteria
OH- is antiported out of the matrix using what substance?
For previously encountered antigens to give a faster response on subsequent encounters.
Multiple antigens cross-link with antibodies
What connects amino acids into linear chains?
Using energy to form glucose
Antibody class that is secreted from B cells; y-shaped
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Are MHCs specific?
What pathway utilizes normal cells to spark an immune response through interaction with cytotoxic T-cells?
High levels of lipids in the blood
Affecting many nerves sytemically
Formation of acetaldehyde adducts yields what?
What is the name of the process of converting lactate back into glucose?
What are the products of TCA entry (total per glucose molecule)?
Fatty acids can be converted into what?
Triglycerides can be split into what?
What is acetyl CoA converted into via the TCA cycle?
Antibodies cross-linked with antigen can form a precipitate
A systemic allergic reaction (as opposed to a localized allergic reaction)
Condition in which patient is 20% or more heavier than their ideal weight
What does acetaldehyde trigger secretion of?
What is a family of lipids bound to oligosaccharides that have parts of their structure that are identical to lipooligosaccharides?
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 2?
What is the name of the detergent that unfolds/denatures proteins in electrophoresis?
Another name for stationary phase or gel.
What CD is mainly found on helper T-cells?
Monocytes in the tissue are called?
What class of MHCs is found on all nucleated cells?
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 3?
What is another name for the Kreb's/citric acid cyle
Cells responsible for humoral immunity
What is the net yield per glucose molecule after the TCA cycle?
Bind to sugars on bacteria
Why use secondary antibodies?
What is ethanol converted into by ADH?
Immunity that you are born with
Part of antibody involved in cell binding
What is pyruvate converted into during fermentation?
What transporter pumps viral proteins into the ER to be displayed on the surface?
What condition involves an autoimmune attack on pancreatic beta cells?
Self becomes recognized as foreign
How many protons are required to flow through F0 to generate one ATP by F1?
Some substance capable of inducing an immune response.
How many protons are transported across the inner membrane per molecule of NADH in Oxidative Phosphorylation?
Can respond to the one antigen that is present rather than all antigens
Where do B-cells go after production?
Process of turning oxidizable substrates into H20 and CO2
Pyruvate is symported into the matrix with what?
The vesicle in which the object now resides after phagocytosis.
Stands for Immunoglobulin
How much does the stalk rotate when three protons pass through it?
To respond to a wide array of antigens
Process of turning fermentable substrates into Lactate or Ethanol and CO2
A cell becomes more specific in its structure and function
What are the reagents of glycolysis step 2
What are the effector cells for B-cells?
What are the three types of effector cells for T-cells?

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