Cell and Molecular Bio Test 2

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Can you name the Cell and Molecular Bio Test 2?

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Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
What is pyruvate converted into during fermentation?
What are the products of glycolysis step 1
What are the three types of effector cells for T-cells?
Are MHCs specific?
Which CD is taken advantage of by HIV?
What is required for leukocyte activation?
has two identical light chains and two identical heavy chains
Excess Acetyl CoA can be converted into what?
Can respond to the one antigen that is present rather than all antigens
How many ATPs are made from the NADH molecules from 1 molecule of glucose?
What is the synthesis of amino acids?
What adjective describes the phenomena where you transcribe both parents copies of a particular protein?
A porous polymer, the voids in which are filled with a fluid
Some substance capable of inducing an immune response.
What transporter pumps viral proteins into the ER to be displayed on the surface?
What are the products of glycolysis step 3
Most common coenzyme
Antibody class that is stuck on surface of B cells; weird shape
The breakdown of glucose to yield energy
What is the unit for 1/12th the mass of a Carbon atom?
Antibodies bind to and inactivate antigens
What is a substance used for storing energy as a carbohydrate in muscle and the liver?
What is the pH at which a protein's net charge is zero?
What is the the antigen in urine that’s detected in pregnancy tests?
Monocytes in the tissue are called?
Loss of electrons
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 3?
Cells responsible for cell mediated immunity
High levels of lipids in the blood
Affecting many nerves sytemically
Programmed cell death
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 2?
How many protons are transported across the inner membrane per molecule of NADH in Oxidative Phosphorylation?
Part of antibody involved in cell binding
Amino acid that is locked into a ring
Acetaldehyde increases generation of what?
What is ethanol converted into by ADH?
What condition involves a autoimmune attack on your joints?
What recognizes and binds to all primary antibodies from a given species?
What does acetaldehyde trigger secretion of?
What base is a part of ATP?
What are the products of TCA entry (total per glucose molecule)?
Multiple antigens cross-link with antibodies
Help discriminate between types of pathogens
Immunity that you are born with
Process of turning fermentable substrates into Lactate or Ethanol and CO2
Anaerobic metabolic breakdown of a nutrient molecule without net oxidation
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 1?
If the pH is raised, amino acids de-protonate, and the protein becomes more _____ overall.
Cells that have a single lobed, big nucleus, ruffles, lysosomes, can't proliferate, participate in phagocytosis and antigen display.
Why use secondary antibodies?
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Pyruvate is symported into the matrix with what?
Cells respond directly and actively to eliminate antigens
Stands for Immunoglobulin
Antibody class that is stuck on surface of B cells; y-shaped
OH- is antiported out of the matrix using what substance?
Condition in which patient is 20% or more heavier than their ideal weight
Weight/Height^2
Electrophoresis separates molecules according to?
What is a Adenine connected to a Ribose sugar called?
The process of a cell engulfing solid particles.
Cells responsible for humoral immunity
What class of MHCs is found on all nucleated cells?
Macrophage-like cells with long spike and sheet like protrusions.
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 4?
What condition involves an autoimmune attack on the intestinal wall that is exacerbated by ingestion of glutens?
What connects amino acids into linear chains?
How are fats converted into acetyl coa?
Another name for variable domain
A self protein that is recognized as an antigen in autoimmune disease
What does acetyl CoA dump the carbons onto in the first step of the TCA cycle?
What recognizes and binds only to the protein of interest?
What is the process by which the immune system is supressed for antigens seen on a fairly regular basis due to eating?
Self becomes recognized as foreign
Process of turning oxidizable substrates into H20 and CO2
What CD is mainly found on helper T-cells?
What is another name for scarring of the liver and poor liver function?
What are the products of glycolysis step 2
What is the breakdown of amino acids?
Glycerols can be converted into what?
What is the name of the detergent that unfolds/denatures proteins in electrophoresis?
What receptors only bind to antigens on display?
Where do B-cells go after production?
Using energy to form glucose
Fatty acids can be converted into what?
Another name for stationary phase or gel.
Amino acid with a Thiol group
If the pH is lowered, amino acids protonate and the protein becomes more _____ overall
What is another name for a MHC?
A specific type of dendritic cell found in the epidermis.
What is acetyl CoA converted into via the TCA cycle?
What pathway utilizes B-cells to spark an immune response through interaction with helper T-cells?
What CD is mainly found on cytotoxic T-cells?
Bind to sugars on bacteria
How many hydrophobic amino acids does it take to cross the cell membrane in reality?
What process keeps only the T-cells that adequately bind to MHCs in self cells?
Formation of acetaldehyde adducts yields what?
What process induces apoptosis in T-cells that bind too well to self cells?
Triglycerides can be split into what?
What is the net yield per glucose molecule after the TCA cycle?
What condition involves an autoimmune attack on pancreatic beta cells?
How many ATPs are made from the FADH2 molecules from 1 molecule of glucose?
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
What class of MHCs is found on all antigen presenting cells?
A receptor whose ligand is an antigen
Cells that have large nuclei, can proliferate, extensive rough ER
Putting the antigen on the outside of the cell to display to other cells.
What is the name of the process of converting lactate back into glucose?
A systemic allergic reaction (as opposed to a localized allergic reaction)
What sugar is a part of ATP?
Where do T-cells mature?
What condition involves a slowly progressing autoimmune attack on your brain and spinal cord?
What is the role of Plasma cells?
What are the reagents of glycolysis step 1
What provides an enhanced secondary immune response to a previously encountered antigen?
Part of antibody where antigens are bound
What is imflammation of the intestine?
How much does the stalk rotate when three protons pass through it?
How many hydrophobic amino acids does it take to cross the cell membrane theoretically?
Amino acid with a Hydrogen group
Acetaldehyde causes a depletion of what?
What differentiates into T-cells and B-cells?
What is the basis of lymphocyte production in the bone marrow?
For previously encountered antigens to give a faster response on subsequent encounters.
A cell becomes more specific in its structure and function
An enzyme system in the blood that can directly kill some foreign cells.
What is Oxaloacetate converted into?
Finger-like projections that suggest that the cell is reaching out and trying to reach something
What pathway utilizes normal cells to spark an immune response through interaction with cytotoxic T-cells?
What are the reagents of glycolysis step 2
To respond to a wide array of antigens
What are the reagents of glycolysis step 3
Antibody class that is secreted from B cells; y-shaped
How many protons are transported across the inner membrane per molecule of FADH2 in Oxidative Phosphorylation?
Antibodies cross-linked with antigen can form a precipitate
How many protons are required to flow through F0 to generate one ATP by F1?
A protein that binds tightly to specific epitopes for identification and elimination.
How many residues per turn are there on an antibody?
What are the final products from one molecule of glucose that goes through aerobic respiration?
What is the breakdown of fat?
Granulocytes that cannot proliferate, and love phagocytosis.
What is a family of lipids bound to oligosaccharides that have parts of their structure that are identical to lipooligosaccharides?
A discrete part of an antigen that is antigenic. There can be many of them.
The vesicle in which the object now resides after phagocytosis.
Cells divide and become more numerous
String of amino acids
What is another name for liver cells?
What is another name for the Kreb's/citric acid cyle
Lipopolysaccharide, a molecule only found on some bacteria
ADP is antiported into the matrix using what substance?
What are the effector cells for B-cells?
What is another name for electron transport?
Another name for constant domain

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Created Mar 15, 2012ReportNominate
Tags:definition, cell, molecular, term, test