Cell and Molecular Bio Test 2

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Can you name the Cell and Molecular Bio Test 2?

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Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
What recognizes and binds only to the protein of interest?
How many residues per turn are there on an antibody?
What is another name for electron transport?
What provides an enhanced secondary immune response to a previously encountered antigen?
Are MHCs specific?
Antibody class that is stuck on surface of B cells; y-shaped
How many protons are required to flow through F0 to generate one ATP by F1?
OH- is antiported out of the matrix using what substance?
The breakdown of glucose to yield energy
Why use secondary antibodies?
A discrete part of an antigen that is antigenic. There can be many of them.
How are fats converted into acetyl coa?
Cells respond directly and actively to eliminate antigens
A systemic allergic reaction (as opposed to a localized allergic reaction)
Amino acid with a Hydrogen group
What pathway utilizes normal cells to spark an immune response through interaction with cytotoxic T-cells?
Another name for constant domain
Some substance capable of inducing an immune response.
Amino acid that is locked into a ring
What pathway utilizes B-cells to spark an immune response through interaction with helper T-cells?
What is acetyl CoA converted into via the TCA cycle?
What differentiates into T-cells and B-cells?
Weight/Height^2
What adjective describes the phenomena where you transcribe both parents copies of a particular protein?
What base is a part of ATP?
ADP is antiported into the matrix using what substance?
A protein that binds tightly to specific epitopes for identification and elimination.
Cells responsible for humoral immunity
Cells that have large nuclei, can proliferate, extensive rough ER
Programmed cell death
Multiple antigens cross-link with antibodies
What are the effector cells for B-cells?
What is the process by which the immune system is supressed for antigens seen on a fairly regular basis due to eating?
If the pH is raised, amino acids de-protonate, and the protein becomes more _____ overall.
What are the three types of effector cells for T-cells?
Antibodies cross-linked with antigen can form a precipitate
What condition involves an autoimmune attack on pancreatic beta cells?
Cells responsible for cell mediated immunity
What is the pH at which a protein's net charge is zero?
What class of MHCs is found on all nucleated cells?
What are the final products from one molecule of glucose that goes through aerobic respiration?
What condition involves a autoimmune attack on your joints?
Loss of electrons
What process keeps only the T-cells that adequately bind to MHCs in self cells?
Self becomes recognized as foreign
What is a Adenine connected to a Ribose sugar called?
Anaerobic metabolic breakdown of a nutrient molecule without net oxidation
Antibody class that is stuck on surface of B cells; weird shape
What is the basis of lymphocyte production in the bone marrow?
What are the reagents of glycolysis step 3
What is the role of Plasma cells?
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
What condition involves an autoimmune attack on the intestinal wall that is exacerbated by ingestion of glutens?
What is the breakdown of fat?
Where do T-cells mature?
has two identical light chains and two identical heavy chains
What class of MHCs is found on all antigen presenting cells?
Antibodies bind to and inactivate antigens
What are the products of TCA entry (total per glucose molecule)?
What is another name for scarring of the liver and poor liver function?
Antibody class that is secreted from B cells; y-shaped
Part of antibody where antigens are bound
High levels of lipids in the blood
What is the name of the process of converting lactate back into glucose?
What does acetaldehyde trigger secretion of?
What is the breakdown of amino acids?
What is another name for the Kreb's/citric acid cyle
What transporter pumps viral proteins into the ER to be displayed on the surface?
What is the the antigen in urine that’s detected in pregnancy tests?
String of amino acids
How many hydrophobic amino acids does it take to cross the cell membrane theoretically?
Another name for stationary phase or gel.
What are the products of glycolysis step 3
Using energy to form glucose
A self protein that is recognized as an antigen in autoimmune disease
Affecting many nerves sytemically
What is the net yield per glucose molecule after the TCA cycle?
What does acetyl CoA dump the carbons onto in the first step of the TCA cycle?
Help discriminate between types of pathogens
What is a substance used for storing energy as a carbohydrate in muscle and the liver?
How many protons are transported across the inner membrane per molecule of NADH in Oxidative Phosphorylation?
How many ATPs are made from the NADH molecules from 1 molecule of glucose?
What is a family of lipids bound to oligosaccharides that have parts of their structure that are identical to lipooligosaccharides?
Bind to sugars on bacteria
Triglycerides can be split into what?
Putting the antigen on the outside of the cell to display to other cells.
Monocytes in the tissue are called?
Where do B-cells go after production?
Part of antibody involved in cell binding
Stands for Immunoglobulin
What process induces apoptosis in T-cells that bind too well to self cells?
A cell becomes more specific in its structure and function
Formation of acetaldehyde adducts yields what?
Acetaldehyde increases generation of what?
Another name for variable domain
Process of turning fermentable substrates into Lactate or Ethanol and CO2
Can respond to the one antigen that is present rather than all antigens
Cells that have a single lobed, big nucleus, ruffles, lysosomes, can't proliferate, participate in phagocytosis and antigen display.
What is another name for a MHC?
Amino acid with a Thiol group
Macrophage-like cells with long spike and sheet like protrusions.
What is Oxaloacetate converted into?
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 2?
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
What is pyruvate converted into during fermentation?
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 4?
What are the reagents of glycolysis step 2
What are the reagents of glycolysis step 1
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 1?
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 3?
Immunity that you are born with
To respond to a wide array of antigens
Condition in which patient is 20% or more heavier than their ideal weight
Fatty acids can be converted into what?
How many ATPs are made from the FADH2 molecules from 1 molecule of glucose?
How much does the stalk rotate when three protons pass through it?
What is another name for liver cells?
What is ethanol converted into by ADH?
What sugar is a part of ATP?
What connects amino acids into linear chains?
The vesicle in which the object now resides after phagocytosis.
What is required for leukocyte activation?
Finger-like projections that suggest that the cell is reaching out and trying to reach something
Which CD is taken advantage of by HIV?
What recognizes and binds to all primary antibodies from a given species?
An enzyme system in the blood that can directly kill some foreign cells.
Cells divide and become more numerous
For previously encountered antigens to give a faster response on subsequent encounters.
Granulocytes that cannot proliferate, and love phagocytosis.
How many protons are transported across the inner membrane per molecule of FADH2 in Oxidative Phosphorylation?
Acetaldehyde causes a depletion of what?
What is the unit for 1/12th the mass of a Carbon atom?
A specific type of dendritic cell found in the epidermis.
What is the synthesis of amino acids?
What is imflammation of the intestine?
How many hydrophobic amino acids does it take to cross the cell membrane in reality?
What is the name of the detergent that unfolds/denatures proteins in electrophoresis?
What CD is mainly found on cytotoxic T-cells?
Pyruvate is symported into the matrix with what?
Process of turning oxidizable substrates into H20 and CO2
Most common coenzyme
Excess Acetyl CoA can be converted into what?
If the pH is lowered, amino acids protonate and the protein becomes more _____ overall
What are the products of glycolysis step 2
Electrophoresis separates molecules according to?
Lipopolysaccharide, a molecule only found on some bacteria
The process of a cell engulfing solid particles.
Glycerols can be converted into what?
What CD is mainly found on helper T-cells?
A receptor whose ligand is an antigen
What are the products of glycolysis step 1
What condition involves a slowly progressing autoimmune attack on your brain and spinal cord?
What receptors only bind to antigens on display?
A porous polymer, the voids in which are filled with a fluid

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