Cell and Molecular Bio Test 2

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Can you name the Cell and Molecular Bio Test 2?

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Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Anaerobic metabolic breakdown of a nutrient molecule without net oxidation
What condition involves a autoimmune attack on your joints?
Antibody class that is secreted from B cells; y-shaped
To respond to a wide array of antigens
ADP is antiported into the matrix using what substance?
What is pyruvate converted into during fermentation?
A systemic allergic reaction (as opposed to a localized allergic reaction)
What pathway utilizes B-cells to spark an immune response through interaction with helper T-cells?
What pathway utilizes normal cells to spark an immune response through interaction with cytotoxic T-cells?
Cells respond directly and actively to eliminate antigens
What is imflammation of the intestine?
What is the net yield per glucose molecule after the TCA cycle?
How many protons are transported across the inner membrane per molecule of NADH in Oxidative Phosphorylation?
How are fats converted into acetyl coa?
A specific type of dendritic cell found in the epidermis.
Part of antibody where antigens are bound
Process of turning oxidizable substrates into H20 and CO2
Bind to sugars on bacteria
A cell becomes more specific in its structure and function
Most common coenzyme
The process of a cell engulfing solid particles.
What recognizes and binds only to the protein of interest?
A self protein that is recognized as an antigen in autoimmune disease
What is the role of Plasma cells?
A receptor whose ligand is an antigen
What is another name for liver cells?
What is another name for electron transport?
Pyruvate is symported into the matrix with what?
Lipopolysaccharide, a molecule only found on some bacteria
Loss of electrons
What condition involves an autoimmune attack on the intestinal wall that is exacerbated by ingestion of glutens?
Are MHCs specific?
Another name for stationary phase or gel.
What is ethanol converted into by ADH?
What base is a part of ATP?
What is the process by which the immune system is supressed for antigens seen on a fairly regular basis due to eating?
How much does the stalk rotate when three protons pass through it?
Acetaldehyde causes a depletion of what?
Amino acid with a Thiol group
How many protons are transported across the inner membrane per molecule of FADH2 in Oxidative Phosphorylation?
Using energy to form glucose
What is a substance used for storing energy as a carbohydrate in muscle and the liver?
OH- is antiported out of the matrix using what substance?
What CD is mainly found on cytotoxic T-cells?
What is another name for a MHC?
Cells responsible for humoral immunity
Acetaldehyde increases generation of what?
Cells that have large nuclei, can proliferate, extensive rough ER
has two identical light chains and two identical heavy chains
Antibodies cross-linked with antigen can form a precipitate
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 4?
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Immunity that you are born with
Antibody class that is stuck on surface of B cells; weird shape
The vesicle in which the object now resides after phagocytosis.
What provides an enhanced secondary immune response to a previously encountered antigen?
What transporter pumps viral proteins into the ER to be displayed on the surface?
What is the name of the detergent that unfolds/denatures proteins in electrophoresis?
What is another name for scarring of the liver and poor liver function?
Affecting many nerves sytemically
How many ATPs are made from the FADH2 molecules from 1 molecule of glucose?
String of amino acids
What are the reagents of glycolysis step 2
What is the basis of lymphocyte production in the bone marrow?
Finger-like projections that suggest that the cell is reaching out and trying to reach something
Weight/Height^2
Glycerols can be converted into what?
What condition involves a slowly progressing autoimmune attack on your brain and spinal cord?
An enzyme system in the blood that can directly kill some foreign cells.
A discrete part of an antigen that is antigenic. There can be many of them.
What is the unit for 1/12th the mass of a Carbon atom?
How many residues per turn are there on an antibody?
Macrophage-like cells with long spike and sheet like protrusions.
Another name for variable domain
Antibody class that is stuck on surface of B cells; y-shaped
What are the products of glycolysis step 3
For previously encountered antigens to give a faster response on subsequent encounters.
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 3?
Condition in which patient is 20% or more heavier than their ideal weight
Electrophoresis separates molecules according to?
What is the breakdown of amino acids?
Self becomes recognized as foreign
Amino acid that is locked into a ring
What condition involves an autoimmune attack on pancreatic beta cells?
What process keeps only the T-cells that adequately bind to MHCs in self cells?
Programmed cell death
What are the products of glycolysis step 2
What are the three types of effector cells for T-cells?
What sugar is a part of ATP?
What is acetyl CoA converted into via the TCA cycle?
What is the the antigen in urine that’s detected in pregnancy tests?
Stands for Immunoglobulin
Antibodies bind to and inactivate antigens
What recognizes and binds to all primary antibodies from a given species?
What does acetyl CoA dump the carbons onto in the first step of the TCA cycle?
What is required for leukocyte activation?
The breakdown of glucose to yield energy
What receptors only bind to antigens on display?
Where do T-cells mature?
Another name for constant domain
What is the synthesis of amino acids?
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 2?
What is the pH at which a protein's net charge is zero?
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
What class of MHCs is found on all nucleated cells?
What are the reagents of glycolysis step 3
What are the products of glycolysis step 1
Why use secondary antibodies?
What are the reagents of glycolysis step 1
Triglycerides can be split into what?
Excess Acetyl CoA can be converted into what?
A porous polymer, the voids in which are filled with a fluid
What is a family of lipids bound to oligosaccharides that have parts of their structure that are identical to lipooligosaccharides?
Cells responsible for cell mediated immunity
What is another name for the Kreb's/citric acid cyle
How many hydrophobic amino acids does it take to cross the cell membrane theoretically?
What connects amino acids into linear chains?
Process of turning fermentable substrates into Lactate or Ethanol and CO2
What adjective describes the phenomena where you transcribe both parents copies of a particular protein?
What does acetaldehyde trigger secretion of?
What is Oxaloacetate converted into?
What differentiates into T-cells and B-cells?
If the pH is lowered, amino acids protonate and the protein becomes more _____ overall
What is the name of the process of converting lactate back into glucose?
What class of MHCs is found on all antigen presenting cells?
Where do B-cells go after production?
Granulocytes that cannot proliferate, and love phagocytosis.
How many ATPs are made from the NADH molecules from 1 molecule of glucose?
Amino acid with a Hydrogen group
What are the final products from one molecule of glucose that goes through aerobic respiration?
Cells that have a single lobed, big nucleus, ruffles, lysosomes, can't proliferate, participate in phagocytosis and antigen display.
How many hydrophobic amino acids does it take to cross the cell membrane in reality?
How many protons are required to flow through F0 to generate one ATP by F1?
If the pH is raised, amino acids de-protonate, and the protein becomes more _____ overall.
What process induces apoptosis in T-cells that bind too well to self cells?
Which CD is taken advantage of by HIV?
Some substance capable of inducing an immune response.
Putting the antigen on the outside of the cell to display to other cells.
What CD is mainly found on helper T-cells?
Cells divide and become more numerous
Multiple antigens cross-link with antibodies
A protein that binds tightly to specific epitopes for identification and elimination.
What is the breakdown of fat?
Fatty acids can be converted into what?
Part of antibody involved in cell binding
What is a Adenine connected to a Ribose sugar called?
What are the products of TCA entry (total per glucose molecule)?
Help discriminate between types of pathogens
Formation of acetaldehyde adducts yields what?
Can respond to the one antigen that is present rather than all antigens
High levels of lipids in the blood
Monocytes in the tissue are called?
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 1?
What are the effector cells for B-cells?

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