Cell and Molecular Bio Test 2

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Can you name the Cell and Molecular Bio Test 2?

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Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
What pathway utilizes B-cells to spark an immune response through interaction with helper T-cells?
Some substance capable of inducing an immune response.
How many hydrophobic amino acids does it take to cross the cell membrane in reality?
What is the synthesis of amino acids?
How many protons are required to flow through F0 to generate one ATP by F1?
What transporter pumps viral proteins into the ER to be displayed on the surface?
What is a substance used for storing energy as a carbohydrate in muscle and the liver?
The process of a cell engulfing solid particles.
Anaerobic metabolic breakdown of a nutrient molecule without net oxidation
What is the pH at which a protein's net charge is zero?
What is the net yield per glucose molecule after the TCA cycle?
Immunity that you are born with
Excess Acetyl CoA can be converted into what?
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 4?
Process of turning fermentable substrates into Lactate or Ethanol and CO2
What are the reagents of glycolysis step 2
What is the name of the detergent that unfolds/denatures proteins in electrophoresis?
What is Oxaloacetate converted into?
What recognizes and binds to all primary antibodies from a given species?
What is the role of Plasma cells?
Self becomes recognized as foreign
A specific type of dendritic cell found in the epidermis.
String of amino acids
What does acetyl CoA dump the carbons onto in the first step of the TCA cycle?
What base is a part of ATP?
Antibodies cross-linked with antigen can form a precipitate
What adjective describes the phenomena where you transcribe both parents copies of a particular protein?
Cells respond directly and actively to eliminate antigens
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 3?
Using energy to form glucose
Acetaldehyde increases generation of what?
OH- is antiported out of the matrix using what substance?
Formation of acetaldehyde adducts yields what?
Granulocytes that cannot proliferate, and love phagocytosis.
What pathway utilizes normal cells to spark an immune response through interaction with cytotoxic T-cells?
What is the process by which the immune system is supressed for antigens seen on a fairly regular basis due to eating?
Finger-like projections that suggest that the cell is reaching out and trying to reach something
What are the products of glycolysis step 3
A protein that binds tightly to specific epitopes for identification and elimination.
What is another name for electron transport?
What condition involves a slowly progressing autoimmune attack on your brain and spinal cord?
Part of antibody involved in cell binding
Another name for stationary phase or gel.
Cells that have a single lobed, big nucleus, ruffles, lysosomes, can't proliferate, participate in phagocytosis and antigen display.
Affecting many nerves sytemically
What differentiates into T-cells and B-cells?
Cells divide and become more numerous
Acetaldehyde causes a depletion of what?
Where do B-cells go after production?
Multiple antigens cross-link with antibodies
What is acetyl CoA converted into via the TCA cycle?
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
What is another name for the Kreb's/citric acid cyle
has two identical light chains and two identical heavy chains
What is required for leukocyte activation?
What process keeps only the T-cells that adequately bind to MHCs in self cells?
Process of turning oxidizable substrates into H20 and CO2
Putting the antigen on the outside of the cell to display to other cells.
An enzyme system in the blood that can directly kill some foreign cells.
What is a family of lipids bound to oligosaccharides that have parts of their structure that are identical to lipooligosaccharides?
A porous polymer, the voids in which are filled with a fluid
Fatty acids can be converted into what?
A discrete part of an antigen that is antigenic. There can be many of them.
Antibodies bind to and inactivate antigens
Antibody class that is stuck on surface of B cells; y-shaped
What is a Adenine connected to a Ribose sugar called?
Pyruvate is symported into the matrix with what?
Electrophoresis separates molecules according to?
For previously encountered antigens to give a faster response on subsequent encounters.
Antibody class that is stuck on surface of B cells; weird shape
What are the final products from one molecule of glucose that goes through aerobic respiration?
Weight/Height^2
Condition in which patient is 20% or more heavier than their ideal weight
What process induces apoptosis in T-cells that bind too well to self cells?
Another name for constant domain
High levels of lipids in the blood
Programmed cell death
Triglycerides can be split into what?
Part of antibody where antigens are bound
What connects amino acids into linear chains?
Lipopolysaccharide, a molecule only found on some bacteria
What are the effector cells for B-cells?
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 1?
What condition involves an autoimmune attack on pancreatic beta cells?
What is the the antigen in urine that’s detected in pregnancy tests?
The vesicle in which the object now resides after phagocytosis.
What condition involves an autoimmune attack on the intestinal wall that is exacerbated by ingestion of glutens?
What is another name for scarring of the liver and poor liver function?
Bind to sugars on bacteria
How many hydrophobic amino acids does it take to cross the cell membrane theoretically?
Cells responsible for cell mediated immunity
Antibody class that is secreted from B cells; y-shaped
How much does the stalk rotate when three protons pass through it?
What sugar is a part of ATP?
What are the products of TCA entry (total per glucose molecule)?
What provides an enhanced secondary immune response to a previously encountered antigen?
Glycerols can be converted into what?
What recognizes and binds only to the protein of interest?
What is ethanol converted into by ADH?
To respond to a wide array of antigens
Amino acid that is locked into a ring
A systemic allergic reaction (as opposed to a localized allergic reaction)
Macrophage-like cells with long spike and sheet like protrusions.
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 2?
How many ATPs are made from the FADH2 molecules from 1 molecule of glucose?
Monocytes in the tissue are called?
What are the three types of effector cells for T-cells?
Stands for Immunoglobulin
What is the name of the process of converting lactate back into glucose?
What is the breakdown of fat?
Can respond to the one antigen that is present rather than all antigens
Why use secondary antibodies?
What class of MHCs is found on all antigen presenting cells?
Cells that have large nuclei, can proliferate, extensive rough ER
What CD is mainly found on helper T-cells?
How many protons are transported across the inner membrane per molecule of NADH in Oxidative Phosphorylation?
What is another name for liver cells?
Amino acid with a Hydrogen group
Where do T-cells mature?
The breakdown of glucose to yield energy
Loss of electrons
What is pyruvate converted into during fermentation?
A self protein that is recognized as an antigen in autoimmune disease
If the pH is raised, amino acids de-protonate, and the protein becomes more _____ overall.
What class of MHCs is found on all nucleated cells?
A receptor whose ligand is an antigen
What are the products of glycolysis step 2
Help discriminate between types of pathogens
What is the unit for 1/12th the mass of a Carbon atom?
What condition involves a autoimmune attack on your joints?
What are the products of glycolysis step 1
What is the basis of lymphocyte production in the bone marrow?
ADP is antiported into the matrix using what substance?
How are fats converted into acetyl coa?
What are the reagents of glycolysis step 3
How many protons are transported across the inner membrane per molecule of FADH2 in Oxidative Phosphorylation?
What is imflammation of the intestine?
What does acetaldehyde trigger secretion of?
Cells responsible for humoral immunity
Which CD is taken advantage of by HIV?
If the pH is lowered, amino acids protonate and the protein becomes more _____ overall
What is the breakdown of amino acids?
Another name for variable domain
What is another name for a MHC?
What receptors only bind to antigens on display?
Most common coenzyme
What CD is mainly found on cytotoxic T-cells?
Amino acid with a Thiol group
A cell becomes more specific in its structure and function
How many residues per turn are there on an antibody?
What are the reagents of glycolysis step 1
How many ATPs are made from the NADH molecules from 1 molecule of glucose?
Are MHCs specific?

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Created Mar 15, 2012ReportNominate
Tags:definition, cell, molecular, term, test