Cell and Molecular Bio Test 2

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Can you name the Cell and Molecular Bio Test 2?

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Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Lipopolysaccharide, a molecule only found on some bacteria
Help discriminate between types of pathogens
A specific type of dendritic cell found in the epidermis.
What are the reagents of glycolysis step 3
How many hydrophobic amino acids does it take to cross the cell membrane theoretically?
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 3?
What is pyruvate converted into during fermentation?
How many protons are transported across the inner membrane per molecule of FADH2 in Oxidative Phosphorylation?
Cells that have a single lobed, big nucleus, ruffles, lysosomes, can't proliferate, participate in phagocytosis and antigen display.
What is the the antigen in urine that’s detected in pregnancy tests?
What process induces apoptosis in T-cells that bind too well to self cells?
Which CD is taken advantage of by HIV?
Another name for constant domain
What is a Adenine connected to a Ribose sugar called?
How many residues per turn are there on an antibody?
What is required for leukocyte activation?
What connects amino acids into linear chains?
What is another name for electron transport?
What CD is mainly found on cytotoxic T-cells?
What CD is mainly found on helper T-cells?
What is a substance used for storing energy as a carbohydrate in muscle and the liver?
Triglycerides can be split into what?
What is the breakdown of fat?
Macrophage-like cells with long spike and sheet like protrusions.
What is the name of the detergent that unfolds/denatures proteins in electrophoresis?
For previously encountered antigens to give a faster response on subsequent encounters.
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 2?
What pathway utilizes B-cells to spark an immune response through interaction with helper T-cells?
Cells respond directly and actively to eliminate antigens
Condition in which patient is 20% or more heavier than their ideal weight
OH- is antiported out of the matrix using what substance?
Another name for variable domain
Where do T-cells mature?
How many protons are transported across the inner membrane per molecule of NADH in Oxidative Phosphorylation?
A self protein that is recognized as an antigen in autoimmune disease
Monocytes in the tissue are called?
Another name for stationary phase or gel.
How much does the stalk rotate when three protons pass through it?
What transporter pumps viral proteins into the ER to be displayed on the surface?
What is the net yield per glucose molecule after the TCA cycle?
What is imflammation of the intestine?
What are the three types of effector cells for T-cells?
What condition involves a autoimmune attack on your joints?
What is the name of the process of converting lactate back into glucose?
A receptor whose ligand is an antigen
Programmed cell death
What receptors only bind to antigens on display?
Pyruvate is symported into the matrix with what?
What is the basis of lymphocyte production in the bone marrow?
Antibody class that is stuck on surface of B cells; y-shaped
Fatty acids can be converted into what?
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
What condition involves a slowly progressing autoimmune attack on your brain and spinal cord?
What recognizes and binds to all primary antibodies from a given species?
What does acetyl CoA dump the carbons onto in the first step of the TCA cycle?
Antibodies bind to and inactivate antigens
Acetaldehyde increases generation of what?
A discrete part of an antigen that is antigenic. There can be many of them.
What base is a part of ATP?
What adjective describes the phenomena where you transcribe both parents copies of a particular protein?
What provides an enhanced secondary immune response to a previously encountered antigen?
Amino acid that is locked into a ring
What class of MHCs is found on all nucleated cells?
What is a family of lipids bound to oligosaccharides that have parts of their structure that are identical to lipooligosaccharides?
Multiple antigens cross-link with antibodies
What is ethanol converted into by ADH?
Amino acid with a Thiol group
What is the pH at which a protein's net charge is zero?
Process of turning fermentable substrates into Lactate or Ethanol and CO2
Excess Acetyl CoA can be converted into what?
Loss of electrons
What pathway utilizes normal cells to spark an immune response through interaction with cytotoxic T-cells?
Cells responsible for cell mediated immunity
High levels of lipids in the blood
Anaerobic metabolic breakdown of a nutrient molecule without net oxidation
Self becomes recognized as foreign
Immunity that you are born with
Antibody class that is stuck on surface of B cells; weird shape
What is the process by which the immune system is supressed for antigens seen on a fairly regular basis due to eating?
Amino acid with a Hydrogen group
Granulocytes that cannot proliferate, and love phagocytosis.
Process of turning oxidizable substrates into H20 and CO2
Bind to sugars on bacteria
What is the breakdown of amino acids?
The breakdown of glucose to yield energy
Part of antibody involved in cell binding
What is the synthesis of amino acids?
What is the role of Plasma cells?
Using energy to form glucose
The vesicle in which the object now resides after phagocytosis.
Formation of acetaldehyde adducts yields what?
What condition involves an autoimmune attack on pancreatic beta cells?
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 1?
What class of MHCs is found on all antigen presenting cells?
If the pH is lowered, amino acids protonate and the protein becomes more _____ overall
What are the effector cells for B-cells?
What are the reagents of glycolysis step 1
To respond to a wide array of antigens
Antibody class that is secreted from B cells; y-shaped
How are fats converted into acetyl coa?
What are the final products from one molecule of glucose that goes through aerobic respiration?
What are the products of glycolysis step 3
What differentiates into T-cells and B-cells?
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Glycerols can be converted into what?
How many hydrophobic amino acids does it take to cross the cell membrane in reality?
What is another name for a MHC?
What are the products of glycolysis step 2
Cells that have large nuclei, can proliferate, extensive rough ER
Cells responsible for humoral immunity
Why use secondary antibodies?
has two identical light chains and two identical heavy chains
Can respond to the one antigen that is present rather than all antigens
Most common coenzyme
What are the reagents of glycolysis step 2
Electrophoresis separates molecules according to?
If the pH is raised, amino acids de-protonate, and the protein becomes more _____ overall.
The process of a cell engulfing solid particles.
Are MHCs specific?
What is another name for scarring of the liver and poor liver function?
Putting the antigen on the outside of the cell to display to other cells.
A cell becomes more specific in its structure and function
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 4?
What is another name for the Kreb's/citric acid cyle
Acetaldehyde causes a depletion of what?
String of amino acids
What sugar is a part of ATP?
A protein that binds tightly to specific epitopes for identification and elimination.
What are the products of glycolysis step 1
A porous polymer, the voids in which are filled with a fluid
What recognizes and binds only to the protein of interest?
What is another name for liver cells?
What are the products of TCA entry (total per glucose molecule)?
What is acetyl CoA converted into via the TCA cycle?
How many protons are required to flow through F0 to generate one ATP by F1?
What is the unit for 1/12th the mass of a Carbon atom?
Finger-like projections that suggest that the cell is reaching out and trying to reach something
Part of antibody where antigens are bound
Affecting many nerves sytemically
How many ATPs are made from the NADH molecules from 1 molecule of glucose?
Some substance capable of inducing an immune response.
An enzyme system in the blood that can directly kill some foreign cells.
Where do B-cells go after production?
Cells divide and become more numerous
How many ATPs are made from the FADH2 molecules from 1 molecule of glucose?
Weight/Height^2
Antibodies cross-linked with antigen can form a precipitate
What condition involves an autoimmune attack on the intestinal wall that is exacerbated by ingestion of glutens?
ADP is antiported into the matrix using what substance?
What process keeps only the T-cells that adequately bind to MHCs in self cells?
What does acetaldehyde trigger secretion of?
Stands for Immunoglobulin
What is Oxaloacetate converted into?
A systemic allergic reaction (as opposed to a localized allergic reaction)

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