Cell and Molecular Bio Test 2

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Can you name the Cell and Molecular Bio Test 2?

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Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
What differentiates into T-cells and B-cells?
What is the unit for 1/12th the mass of a Carbon atom?
Amino acid that is locked into a ring
What base is a part of ATP?
What is the name of the process of converting lactate back into glucose?
What CD is mainly found on helper T-cells?
What is another name for liver cells?
What condition involves a autoimmune attack on your joints?
Where do B-cells go after production?
What is a substance used for storing energy as a carbohydrate in muscle and the liver?
What process induces apoptosis in T-cells that bind too well to self cells?
How much does the stalk rotate when three protons pass through it?
What is the basis of lymphocyte production in the bone marrow?
What adjective describes the phenomena where you transcribe both parents copies of a particular protein?
What CD is mainly found on cytotoxic T-cells?
Excess Acetyl CoA can be converted into what?
A specific type of dendritic cell found in the epidermis.
Cells that have a single lobed, big nucleus, ruffles, lysosomes, can't proliferate, participate in phagocytosis and antigen display.
Which CD is taken advantage of by HIV?
What is the name of the detergent that unfolds/denatures proteins in electrophoresis?
What does acetyl CoA dump the carbons onto in the first step of the TCA cycle?
Loss of electrons
If the pH is raised, amino acids de-protonate, and the protein becomes more _____ overall.
To respond to a wide array of antigens
What pathway utilizes normal cells to spark an immune response through interaction with cytotoxic T-cells?
Can respond to the one antigen that is present rather than all antigens
What are the products of glycolysis step 3
What receptors only bind to antigens on display?
An enzyme system in the blood that can directly kill some foreign cells.
How many protons are required to flow through F0 to generate one ATP by F1?
What is another name for electron transport?
Where do T-cells mature?
What sugar is a part of ATP?
The vesicle in which the object now resides after phagocytosis.
Triglycerides can be split into what?
Antibody class that is stuck on surface of B cells; weird shape
A systemic allergic reaction (as opposed to a localized allergic reaction)
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 1?
Stands for Immunoglobulin
A cell becomes more specific in its structure and function
Help discriminate between types of pathogens
String of amino acids
What is the breakdown of amino acids?
Part of antibody involved in cell binding
What is the synthesis of amino acids?
What is pyruvate converted into during fermentation?
Amino acid with a Hydrogen group
What provides an enhanced secondary immune response to a previously encountered antigen?
A self protein that is recognized as an antigen in autoimmune disease
Antibodies cross-linked with antigen can form a precipitate
What recognizes and binds only to the protein of interest?
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Electrophoresis separates molecules according to?
How many ATPs are made from the NADH molecules from 1 molecule of glucose?
Antibody class that is stuck on surface of B cells; y-shaped
What is imflammation of the intestine?
What are the products of glycolysis step 1
What is a Adenine connected to a Ribose sugar called?
How many ATPs are made from the FADH2 molecules from 1 molecule of glucose?
Multiple antigens cross-link with antibodies
How many hydrophobic amino acids does it take to cross the cell membrane in reality?
Putting the antigen on the outside of the cell to display to other cells.
How many hydrophobic amino acids does it take to cross the cell membrane theoretically?
How are fats converted into acetyl coa?
What is required for leukocyte activation?
What are the final products from one molecule of glucose that goes through aerobic respiration?
How many residues per turn are there on an antibody?
What is another name for a MHC?
Anaerobic metabolic breakdown of a nutrient molecule without net oxidation
Programmed cell death
For previously encountered antigens to give a faster response on subsequent encounters.
What is another name for the Kreb's/citric acid cyle
Pyruvate is symported into the matrix with what?
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 4?
What are the reagents of glycolysis step 1
Most common coenzyme
Cells respond directly and actively to eliminate antigens
What pathway utilizes B-cells to spark an immune response through interaction with helper T-cells?
What is the breakdown of fat?
Weight/Height^2
Affecting many nerves sytemically
OH- is antiported out of the matrix using what substance?
What is a family of lipids bound to oligosaccharides that have parts of their structure that are identical to lipooligosaccharides?
Using energy to form glucose
Condition in which patient is 20% or more heavier than their ideal weight
What are the three types of effector cells for T-cells?
Part of antibody where antigens are bound
What are the effector cells for B-cells?
Self becomes recognized as foreign
What are the products of TCA entry (total per glucose molecule)?
Cells that have large nuclei, can proliferate, extensive rough ER
Amino acid with a Thiol group
What recognizes and binds to all primary antibodies from a given species?
Glycerols can be converted into what?
What does acetaldehyde trigger secretion of?
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 3?
Macrophage-like cells with long spike and sheet like protrusions.
Granulocytes that cannot proliferate, and love phagocytosis.
What condition involves an autoimmune attack on pancreatic beta cells?
What is another name for scarring of the liver and poor liver function?
Cells responsible for cell mediated immunity
Formation of acetaldehyde adducts yields what?
Why use secondary antibodies?
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Process of turning oxidizable substrates into H20 and CO2
High levels of lipids in the blood
The breakdown of glucose to yield energy
Process of turning fermentable substrates into Lactate or Ethanol and CO2
What connects amino acids into linear chains?
has two identical light chains and two identical heavy chains
What are the reagents of glycolysis step 3
What transporter pumps viral proteins into the ER to be displayed on the surface?
What is the the antigen in urine that’s detected in pregnancy tests?
What is ethanol converted into by ADH?
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 2?
Antibody class that is secreted from B cells; y-shaped
What class of MHCs is found on all nucleated cells?
What class of MHCs is found on all antigen presenting cells?
Are MHCs specific?
Lipopolysaccharide, a molecule only found on some bacteria
A discrete part of an antigen that is antigenic. There can be many of them.
What condition involves a slowly progressing autoimmune attack on your brain and spinal cord?
A receptor whose ligand is an antigen
Another name for constant domain
How many protons are transported across the inner membrane per molecule of NADH in Oxidative Phosphorylation?
What is the process by which the immune system is supressed for antigens seen on a fairly regular basis due to eating?
Immunity that you are born with
Antibodies bind to and inactivate antigens
Finger-like projections that suggest that the cell is reaching out and trying to reach something
ADP is antiported into the matrix using what substance?
Fatty acids can be converted into what?
A porous polymer, the voids in which are filled with a fluid
Another name for variable domain
A protein that binds tightly to specific epitopes for identification and elimination.
Some substance capable of inducing an immune response.
What is the pH at which a protein's net charge is zero?
How many protons are transported across the inner membrane per molecule of FADH2 in Oxidative Phosphorylation?
What process keeps only the T-cells that adequately bind to MHCs in self cells?
Cells divide and become more numerous
The process of a cell engulfing solid particles.
Bind to sugars on bacteria
What are the products of glycolysis step 2
Acetaldehyde increases generation of what?
What condition involves an autoimmune attack on the intestinal wall that is exacerbated by ingestion of glutens?
Monocytes in the tissue are called?
Another name for stationary phase or gel.
What is the net yield per glucose molecule after the TCA cycle?
Cells responsible for humoral immunity
What is the role of Plasma cells?
Acetaldehyde causes a depletion of what?
If the pH is lowered, amino acids protonate and the protein becomes more _____ overall
What are the reagents of glycolysis step 2
What is Oxaloacetate converted into?
What is acetyl CoA converted into via the TCA cycle?

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