Cell and Molecular Bio Test 1 Part 2

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Can you name the Cell and Molecular Bio Test 1 Part 2?

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Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Plus-end directed, toward the periphery
Stabilize nerve axons by maintaining girth
Determines G protein specificity
A motor is called this if it can walk continuously along a filament without falling off
Speed of movement
Connecting a hormone to a very specific effector
Accelerates the movement of a solute down it’s electrochemical gradient
Dynein that is used for cilliary and flagellar motion
Type of drugs that treat cancer
What is IP3?
Feeling of motion (spinning)
There is a limit as to how fast an enzyme can go; one substrate move in and products move out before the next substrate moves in
“Hump” to get over on its way to lower energy
Break protein chains through hydrolysis (breaking apart water)
Form the tonofilaments of epithelia, found in skin and hair
What SOD converts superoxide into
Force x distance
Proteins that transport solutes together
What does cAMP activate?
Shuttle that promotes nucleotide exchange
A system that’s based in cytoskeleton of neurons that is responsible for transporting materials such as organelles, vesicles… etc.
Allow very specific ions to cross membranes by creating a channel/tunnel through the cell membrane
Allow specific solutes to cross membrane
Monomer concentration [m] at which the rate of monomer addition equals the rate of monomer loss.
Allows a reaction to go faster
Interacts with hormone; determines ligand specificity
Top of “hump” in energy diagram of reaction
What is Ca2+?
The beginning of chemical or physical changes at discrete points in a system. Helps the actin filaments start growing.
A flattened extension of a cell, by which it moves over or adheres to a surface
Exchanges three sodium ions OUT and two potassium ions IN utilizing one ATP (ATP releases a P, becomes ADP, causes pump to open)
Oxidizes proteins in a more harmful and irreversible way
Too many copies of genes
Load bearing filaments
Soda straw tubes, made out of tubulins, used for intracellular transport. Very stiff, grow from the + end
What enzymes act upon
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Dynein that is used for cargo transport
Actin filament stabilizer; leads to liver failure if ingested.
Due to multiple copies of a gene the effect of a gene can be enhanced
Proteins that exchange solutes
Molecular motor that takes cargo to periphery of cell
Other proteins or molecules that are necessary to keep the enzyme activated
Turn things off
An assay with kinesin or dynein and microtubules
Turn things on
Cause unknown in terms of ALS
Microtubule based motors that are minus-end directed
Relates time to the mean squared distance traveled
Copying DNA into RNA
What is DAG?
Altered vision and confusion
Binds and hydrolyzes GTP
Energy bearing compound
Microtubule based motors that are mostly plus-end directed
Basic subunit for filaments
One event makes tons of second messengers
Faces inside world of body
Makes branch points on actin filaments and nucleates new filament growth.
Normal though harmful byproduct of oxidative metabolism
Something that binds to a receptor
Protein constituents know how to orient themselves to create the cytoskeleton via long filaments
What is cAMP?
Monomer buffer
Growth by the addition of monomers
Maximum amount of force a motor can generate
Stacking by alternating between alpha and beta tubulins
The folded bits in the mitochondria
Causes disassembly of microtubules
Where a specific kind of RNA (ribosomal) is being made
Amount of time spent generating force
Any of various pathologic changes seen in living organisms in response to excessive levels of cytotoxic oxidants and free radicals in the environment.
Elimination of toxins
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Portion that is connected to filament
Molecular sized apparatus that converts energy to work
Two different proteins stuck together
Incorrect tracking of the eye
Protein changes its shape in a way to where it no longer functions
Any device that changes some measurable quantity into another measurable quantity
New growth off of the main actin filament
Lend lateral strength to tissues, stable, they are not polar
Faces outside world
Length one step of a motor makes
Small molecules that convey the message from the receptor to the cell interior.
Made of actin and actin-binding proteins, responsible for cell shape, contraction, motility, and cellular transport
Shut down mitosis
Double membrane around the nucleus
Notable example of MTOC
Rate of using ATP
Binds the relative cargo
Same enzyme doing basically the same reaction but in a different way
A temporary protrusion of the surface of an ameboid cell for movement and feeding
The filling in the mitochondria
Inherited
Stabilizes microtubules, blocking cell division
A substance can be called this if you can put one wavelength in and get a different wavelength out
Key activator of Arp2/3 that is itself activated by G protein coupled receptors.
A large chunk of the microtubule disassembles rapidly
Handles Oxidative stress in the body.
An assay with actin over myosin
Twitching
Control where microtubules form and they bypass the time for nucleation.
Away from the middle
Acts on ATP to strip off two phosphates turning it into cAMP
Breaking apart water (hydrolysis) in the process of breaking protein chains
Using RNA as a template for making protein
Molecular motor that takes cargo to center of cell
Protein that forms filaments for muscle contraction

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