Science / Cell and Molecular Bio Test 1 Part 2

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Can you name the Cell and Molecular Bio Test 1 Part 2?

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Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Acts on ATP to strip off two phosphates turning it into cAMP
Stacking by alternating between alpha and beta tubulins
Relates time to the mean squared distance traveled
Small molecules that convey the message from the receptor to the cell interior.
Actin filament stabilizer; leads to liver failure if ingested.
One event makes tons of second messengers
Soda straw tubes, made out of tubulins, used for intracellular transport. Very stiff, grow from the + end
Key activator of Arp2/3 that is itself activated by G protein coupled receptors.
The beginning of chemical or physical changes at discrete points in a system. Helps the actin filaments start growing.
Dynein that is used for cargo transport
Too many copies of genes
Proteins that transport solutes together
Faces outside world
Proteins that exchange solutes
Allow specific solutes to cross membrane
Feeling of motion (spinning)
Other proteins or molecules that are necessary to keep the enzyme activated
An assay with actin over myosin
Protein constituents know how to orient themselves to create the cytoskeleton via long filaments
Maximum amount of force a motor can generate
Control where microtubules form and they bypass the time for nucleation.
Copying DNA into RNA
Allow very specific ions to cross membranes by creating a channel/tunnel through the cell membrane
Binds and hydrolyzes GTP
Shuttle that promotes nucleotide exchange
Protein that forms filaments for muscle contraction
Basic subunit for filaments
Accelerates the movement of a solute down it’s electrochemical gradient
The folded bits in the mitochondria
Double membrane around the nucleus
Any of various pathologic changes seen in living organisms in response to excessive levels of cytotoxic oxidants and free radicals in the environment.
Microtubule based motors that are minus-end directed
Notable example of MTOC
Force x distance
Binds the relative cargo
Microtubule based motors that are mostly plus-end directed
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
There is a limit as to how fast an enzyme can go; one substrate move in and products move out before the next substrate moves in
New growth off of the main actin filament
Faces inside world of body
Connecting a hormone to a very specific effector
A system that’s based in cytoskeleton of neurons that is responsible for transporting materials such as organelles, vesicles… etc.
Stabilizes microtubules, blocking cell division
Determines G protein specificity
Something that binds to a receptor
Plus-end directed, toward the periphery
Causes disassembly of microtubules
What is cAMP?
The filling in the mitochondria
Speed of movement
A motor is called this if it can walk continuously along a filament without falling off
Makes branch points on actin filaments and nucleates new filament growth.
Stabilize nerve axons by maintaining girth
Two different proteins stuck together
Turn things off
What SOD converts superoxide into
Oxidizes proteins in a more harmful and irreversible way
Breaking apart water (hydrolysis) in the process of breaking protein chains
Amount of time spent generating force
What is DAG?
Altered vision and confusion
What enzymes act upon
Dynein that is used for cilliary and flagellar motion
Molecular motor that takes cargo to periphery of cell
Shut down mitosis
Cause unknown in terms of ALS
Load bearing filaments
Type of drugs that treat cancer
An assay with kinesin or dynein and microtubules
Any device that changes some measurable quantity into another measurable quantity
“Hump” to get over on its way to lower energy
A large chunk of the microtubule disassembles rapidly
Exchanges three sodium ions OUT and two potassium ions IN utilizing one ATP (ATP releases a P, becomes ADP, causes pump to open)
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Inherited
Lend lateral strength to tissues, stable, they are not polar
Portion that is connected to filament
Made of actin and actin-binding proteins, responsible for cell shape, contraction, motility, and cellular transport
Break protein chains through hydrolysis (breaking apart water)
Top of “hump” in energy diagram of reaction
Energy bearing compound
Normal though harmful byproduct of oxidative metabolism
Twitching
Turn things on
Incorrect tracking of the eye
Using RNA as a template for making protein
A temporary protrusion of the surface of an ameboid cell for movement and feeding
What does cAMP activate?
Away from the middle
What is IP3?
Protein changes its shape in a way to where it no longer functions
Allows a reaction to go faster
Elimination of toxins
Interacts with hormone; determines ligand specificity
Where a specific kind of RNA (ribosomal) is being made
A substance can be called this if you can put one wavelength in and get a different wavelength out
Handles Oxidative stress in the body.
Molecular sized apparatus that converts energy to work
A flattened extension of a cell, by which it moves over or adheres to a surface
Monomer concentration [m] at which the rate of monomer addition equals the rate of monomer loss.
Molecular motor that takes cargo to center of cell
What is Ca2+?
Form the tonofilaments of epithelia, found in skin and hair
Growth by the addition of monomers
Length one step of a motor makes
Same enzyme doing basically the same reaction but in a different way
Rate of using ATP
Monomer buffer
Due to multiple copies of a gene the effect of a gene can be enhanced

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