Cell and Molecular Bio Test 1 Part 2

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Can you name the Cell and Molecular Bio Test 1 Part 2?

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Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Turn things on
New growth off of the main actin filament
What does cAMP activate?
Stabilizes microtubules, blocking cell division
Force x distance
Turn things off
A flattened extension of a cell, by which it moves over or adheres to a surface
What is DAG?
There is a limit as to how fast an enzyme can go; one substrate move in and products move out before the next substrate moves in
Shut down mitosis
Makes branch points on actin filaments and nucleates new filament growth.
Type of drugs that treat cancer
A temporary protrusion of the surface of an ameboid cell for movement and feeding
What is IP3?
Amount of time spent generating force
Monomer concentration [m] at which the rate of monomer addition equals the rate of monomer loss.
Due to multiple copies of a gene the effect of a gene can be enhanced
Double membrane around the nucleus
One event makes tons of second messengers
Basic subunit for filaments
Made of actin and actin-binding proteins, responsible for cell shape, contraction, motility, and cellular transport
Rate of using ATP
Protein constituents know how to orient themselves to create the cytoskeleton via long filaments
Allows a reaction to go faster
Energy bearing compound
Exchanges three sodium ions OUT and two potassium ions IN utilizing one ATP (ATP releases a P, becomes ADP, causes pump to open)
What SOD converts superoxide into
Causes disassembly of microtubules
Stabilize nerve axons by maintaining girth
A large chunk of the microtubule disassembles rapidly
Molecular motor that takes cargo to center of cell
Protein changes its shape in a way to where it no longer functions
Elimination of toxins
Actin filament stabilizer; leads to liver failure if ingested.
“Hump” to get over on its way to lower energy
What enzymes act upon
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Protein that forms filaments for muscle contraction
Molecular motor that takes cargo to periphery of cell
Same enzyme doing basically the same reaction but in a different way
What is cAMP?
Altered vision and confusion
Microtubule based motors that are minus-end directed
Faces inside world of body
Length one step of a motor makes
Something that binds to a receptor
Key activator of Arp2/3 that is itself activated by G protein coupled receptors.
Proteins that exchange solutes
Stacking by alternating between alpha and beta tubulins
Dynein that is used for cargo transport
Handles Oxidative stress in the body.
Away from the middle
Dynein that is used for cilliary and flagellar motion
An assay with actin over myosin
Faces outside world
What is Ca2+?
Plus-end directed, toward the periphery
Top of “hump” in energy diagram of reaction
Notable example of MTOC
Shuttle that promotes nucleotide exchange
Soda straw tubes, made out of tubulins, used for intracellular transport. Very stiff, grow from the + end
Molecular sized apparatus that converts energy to work
Any of various pathologic changes seen in living organisms in response to excessive levels of cytotoxic oxidants and free radicals in the environment.
Cause unknown in terms of ALS
Load bearing filaments
Oxidizes proteins in a more harmful and irreversible way
Connecting a hormone to a very specific effector
A motor is called this if it can walk continuously along a filament without falling off
Feeling of motion (spinning)
Interacts with hormone; determines ligand specificity
Monomer buffer
A system that’s based in cytoskeleton of neurons that is responsible for transporting materials such as organelles, vesicles… etc.
Form the tonofilaments of epithelia, found in skin and hair
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Any device that changes some measurable quantity into another measurable quantity
Binds the relative cargo
An assay with kinesin or dynein and microtubules
The filling in the mitochondria
Where a specific kind of RNA (ribosomal) is being made
Growth by the addition of monomers
Two different proteins stuck together
Other proteins or molecules that are necessary to keep the enzyme activated
A substance can be called this if you can put one wavelength in and get a different wavelength out
Determines G protein specificity
Relates time to the mean squared distance traveled
The folded bits in the mitochondria
Binds and hydrolyzes GTP
Proteins that transport solutes together
Inherited
Copying DNA into RNA
Allow specific solutes to cross membrane
Maximum amount of force a motor can generate
Breaking apart water (hydrolysis) in the process of breaking protein chains
The beginning of chemical or physical changes at discrete points in a system. Helps the actin filaments start growing.
Break protein chains through hydrolysis (breaking apart water)
Control where microtubules form and they bypass the time for nucleation.
Too many copies of genes
Accelerates the movement of a solute down it’s electrochemical gradient
Normal though harmful byproduct of oxidative metabolism
Portion that is connected to filament
Twitching
Lend lateral strength to tissues, stable, they are not polar
Using RNA as a template for making protein
Incorrect tracking of the eye
Microtubule based motors that are mostly plus-end directed
Allow very specific ions to cross membranes by creating a channel/tunnel through the cell membrane
Small molecules that convey the message from the receptor to the cell interior.
Speed of movement
Acts on ATP to strip off two phosphates turning it into cAMP

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