Cell and Molecular Bio Test 1 Part 2

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Can you name the Cell and Molecular Bio Test 1 Part 2?

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Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
The folded bits in the mitochondria
Other proteins or molecules that are necessary to keep the enzyme activated
Cause unknown in terms of ALS
Small molecules that convey the message from the receptor to the cell interior.
Breaking apart water (hydrolysis) in the process of breaking protein chains
Any of various pathologic changes seen in living organisms in response to excessive levels of cytotoxic oxidants and free radicals in the environment.
Due to multiple copies of a gene the effect of a gene can be enhanced
Exchanges three sodium ions OUT and two potassium ions IN utilizing one ATP (ATP releases a P, becomes ADP, causes pump to open)
Maximum amount of force a motor can generate
Load bearing filaments
Faces inside world of body
Force x distance
Portion that is connected to filament
Protein constituents know how to orient themselves to create the cytoskeleton via long filaments
A motor is called this if it can walk continuously along a filament without falling off
Molecular motor that takes cargo to periphery of cell
Relates time to the mean squared distance traveled
Form the tonofilaments of epithelia, found in skin and hair
What is DAG?
Stabilizes microtubules, blocking cell division
Interacts with hormone; determines ligand specificity
Molecular motor that takes cargo to center of cell
Growth by the addition of monomers
Dynein that is used for cargo transport
A flattened extension of a cell, by which it moves over or adheres to a surface
New growth off of the main actin filament
Type of drugs that treat cancer
Top of “hump” in energy diagram of reaction
Shuttle that promotes nucleotide exchange
Away from the middle
One event makes tons of second messengers
Speed of movement
Protein that forms filaments for muscle contraction
What enzymes act upon
An assay with actin over myosin
Monomer concentration [m] at which the rate of monomer addition equals the rate of monomer loss.
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Makes branch points on actin filaments and nucleates new filament growth.
Inherited
The beginning of chemical or physical changes at discrete points in a system. Helps the actin filaments start growing.
A temporary protrusion of the surface of an ameboid cell for movement and feeding
Dynein that is used for cilliary and flagellar motion
Any device that changes some measurable quantity into another measurable quantity
Protein changes its shape in a way to where it no longer functions
Notable example of MTOC
Allow specific solutes to cross membrane
A substance can be called this if you can put one wavelength in and get a different wavelength out
A large chunk of the microtubule disassembles rapidly
Actin filament stabilizer; leads to liver failure if ingested.
Basic subunit for filaments
Shut down mitosis
Twitching
Feeling of motion (spinning)
“Hump” to get over on its way to lower energy
Same enzyme doing basically the same reaction but in a different way
Oxidizes proteins in a more harmful and irreversible way
Incorrect tracking of the eye
Lend lateral strength to tissues, stable, they are not polar
Binds the relative cargo
What is Ca2+?
A system that’s based in cytoskeleton of neurons that is responsible for transporting materials such as organelles, vesicles… etc.
Key activator of Arp2/3 that is itself activated by G protein coupled receptors.
Energy bearing compound
Turn things off
Plus-end directed, toward the periphery
Microtubule based motors that are minus-end directed
Molecular sized apparatus that converts energy to work
Determines G protein specificity
Accelerates the movement of a solute down it’s electrochemical gradient
Elimination of toxins
The filling in the mitochondria
Binds and hydrolyzes GTP
Length one step of a motor makes
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Proteins that transport solutes together
Microtubule based motors that are mostly plus-end directed
Where a specific kind of RNA (ribosomal) is being made
Allows a reaction to go faster
Amount of time spent generating force
Acts on ATP to strip off two phosphates turning it into cAMP
Normal though harmful byproduct of oxidative metabolism
Break protein chains through hydrolysis (breaking apart water)
Stabilize nerve axons by maintaining girth
What is cAMP?
Causes disassembly of microtubules
Something that binds to a receptor
What is IP3?
Control where microtubules form and they bypass the time for nucleation.
An assay with kinesin or dynein and microtubules
Soda straw tubes, made out of tubulins, used for intracellular transport. Very stiff, grow from the + end
Two different proteins stuck together
Altered vision and confusion
Turn things on
What SOD converts superoxide into
Stacking by alternating between alpha and beta tubulins
Proteins that exchange solutes
Copying DNA into RNA
Rate of using ATP
Too many copies of genes
Handles Oxidative stress in the body.
Allow very specific ions to cross membranes by creating a channel/tunnel through the cell membrane
Monomer buffer
Using RNA as a template for making protein
Double membrane around the nucleus
What does cAMP activate?
Connecting a hormone to a very specific effector
Faces outside world
There is a limit as to how fast an enzyme can go; one substrate move in and products move out before the next substrate moves in
Made of actin and actin-binding proteins, responsible for cell shape, contraction, motility, and cellular transport

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