Cell and Molecular Bio Test 1 Part 2

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Can you name the Cell and Molecular Bio Test 1 Part 2?

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Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
A substance can be called this if you can put one wavelength in and get a different wavelength out
What is DAG?
Key activator of Arp2/3 that is itself activated by G protein coupled receptors.
A temporary protrusion of the surface of an ameboid cell for movement and feeding
Speed of movement
Other proteins or molecules that are necessary to keep the enzyme activated
Microtubule based motors that are minus-end directed
The folded bits in the mitochondria
Any of various pathologic changes seen in living organisms in response to excessive levels of cytotoxic oxidants and free radicals in the environment.
Exchanges three sodium ions OUT and two potassium ions IN utilizing one ATP (ATP releases a P, becomes ADP, causes pump to open)
Actin filament stabilizer; leads to liver failure if ingested.
A system that’s based in cytoskeleton of neurons that is responsible for transporting materials such as organelles, vesicles… etc.
What is cAMP?
Dynein that is used for cargo transport
Interacts with hormone; determines ligand specificity
Allows a reaction to go faster
Altered vision and confusion
Determines G protein specificity
Where a specific kind of RNA (ribosomal) is being made
There is a limit as to how fast an enzyme can go; one substrate move in and products move out before the next substrate moves in
Form the tonofilaments of epithelia, found in skin and hair
Shut down mitosis
Too many copies of genes
Binds and hydrolyzes GTP
Connecting a hormone to a very specific effector
Growth by the addition of monomers
Faces outside world
Incorrect tracking of the eye
Elimination of toxins
Control where microtubules form and they bypass the time for nucleation.
Two different proteins stuck together
Protein constituents know how to orient themselves to create the cytoskeleton via long filaments
Makes branch points on actin filaments and nucleates new filament growth.
The filling in the mitochondria
Cause unknown in terms of ALS
What SOD converts superoxide into
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Shuttle that promotes nucleotide exchange
What enzymes act upon
Basic subunit for filaments
Portion that is connected to filament
Monomer concentration [m] at which the rate of monomer addition equals the rate of monomer loss.
Stabilize nerve axons by maintaining girth
Top of “hump” in energy diagram of reaction
Molecular motor that takes cargo to periphery of cell
Energy bearing compound
What does cAMP activate?
Twitching
New growth off of the main actin filament
Proteins that exchange solutes
One event makes tons of second messengers
A flattened extension of a cell, by which it moves over or adheres to a surface
Dynein that is used for cilliary and flagellar motion
Load bearing filaments
Notable example of MTOC
Normal though harmful byproduct of oxidative metabolism
Faces inside world of body
A motor is called this if it can walk continuously along a filament without falling off
What is Ca2+?
Causes disassembly of microtubules
Protein changes its shape in a way to where it no longer functions
Accelerates the movement of a solute down it’s electrochemical gradient
Molecular sized apparatus that converts energy to work
What is IP3?
Maximum amount of force a motor can generate
The beginning of chemical or physical changes at discrete points in a system. Helps the actin filaments start growing.
Due to multiple copies of a gene the effect of a gene can be enhanced
Molecular motor that takes cargo to center of cell
Turn things on
Handles Oxidative stress in the body.
Allow very specific ions to cross membranes by creating a channel/tunnel through the cell membrane
Inherited
Allow specific solutes to cross membrane
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
An assay with actin over myosin
Monomer buffer
Proteins that transport solutes together
Away from the middle
Stabilizes microtubules, blocking cell division
Break protein chains through hydrolysis (breaking apart water)
Lend lateral strength to tissues, stable, they are not polar
Plus-end directed, toward the periphery
Acts on ATP to strip off two phosphates turning it into cAMP
Type of drugs that treat cancer
Same enzyme doing basically the same reaction but in a different way
A large chunk of the microtubule disassembles rapidly
Breaking apart water (hydrolysis) in the process of breaking protein chains
An assay with kinesin or dynein and microtubules
Force x distance
Double membrane around the nucleus
Protein that forms filaments for muscle contraction
Stacking by alternating between alpha and beta tubulins
Turn things off
Using RNA as a template for making protein
Feeling of motion (spinning)
Oxidizes proteins in a more harmful and irreversible way
Made of actin and actin-binding proteins, responsible for cell shape, contraction, motility, and cellular transport
Small molecules that convey the message from the receptor to the cell interior.
Relates time to the mean squared distance traveled
Binds the relative cargo
Microtubule based motors that are mostly plus-end directed
Amount of time spent generating force
Rate of using ATP
Copying DNA into RNA
Any device that changes some measurable quantity into another measurable quantity
“Hump” to get over on its way to lower energy
Soda straw tubes, made out of tubulins, used for intracellular transport. Very stiff, grow from the + end
Length one step of a motor makes
Something that binds to a receptor

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