Cell and Molecular Bio Test 1 Part 2

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Can you name the Cell and Molecular Bio Test 1 Part 2?

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Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Top of “hump” in energy diagram of reaction
Acts on ATP to strip off two phosphates turning it into cAMP
Altered vision and confusion
Shuttle that promotes nucleotide exchange
Allows a reaction to go faster
Length one step of a motor makes
What is Ca2+?
Amount of time spent generating force
Due to multiple copies of a gene the effect of a gene can be enhanced
Maximum amount of force a motor can generate
Soda straw tubes, made out of tubulins, used for intracellular transport. Very stiff, grow from the + end
What is IP3?
Other proteins or molecules that are necessary to keep the enzyme activated
Relates time to the mean squared distance traveled
Breaking apart water (hydrolysis) in the process of breaking protein chains
Stabilizes microtubules, blocking cell division
Key activator of Arp2/3 that is itself activated by G protein coupled receptors.
Same enzyme doing basically the same reaction but in a different way
Stabilize nerve axons by maintaining girth
What SOD converts superoxide into
Cause unknown in terms of ALS
Monomer buffer
Allow specific solutes to cross membrane
Plus-end directed, toward the periphery
“Hump” to get over on its way to lower energy
Copying DNA into RNA
Handles Oxidative stress in the body.
Exchanges three sodium ions OUT and two potassium ions IN utilizing one ATP (ATP releases a P, becomes ADP, causes pump to open)
Type of drugs that treat cancer
Dynein that is used for cilliary and flagellar motion
Feeling of motion (spinning)
Accelerates the movement of a solute down it’s electrochemical gradient
Turn things off
Incorrect tracking of the eye
Protein changes its shape in a way to where it no longer functions
A motor is called this if it can walk continuously along a filament without falling off
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Connecting a hormone to a very specific effector
The filling in the mitochondria
Rate of using ATP
There is a limit as to how fast an enzyme can go; one substrate move in and products move out before the next substrate moves in
The folded bits in the mitochondria
Twitching
Proteins that exchange solutes
Determines G protein specificity
Away from the middle
What does cAMP activate?
Faces inside world of body
Proteins that transport solutes together
Energy bearing compound
Basic subunit for filaments
Protein that forms filaments for muscle contraction
A flattened extension of a cell, by which it moves over or adheres to a surface
Form the tonofilaments of epithelia, found in skin and hair
Monomer concentration [m] at which the rate of monomer addition equals the rate of monomer loss.
Double membrane around the nucleus
Microtubule based motors that are mostly plus-end directed
Binds the relative cargo
The beginning of chemical or physical changes at discrete points in a system. Helps the actin filaments start growing.
Small molecules that convey the message from the receptor to the cell interior.
Lend lateral strength to tissues, stable, they are not polar
Makes branch points on actin filaments and nucleates new filament growth.
Portion that is connected to filament
Made of actin and actin-binding proteins, responsible for cell shape, contraction, motility, and cellular transport
Using RNA as a template for making protein
A temporary protrusion of the surface of an ameboid cell for movement and feeding
Turn things on
Two different proteins stuck together
Notable example of MTOC
A large chunk of the microtubule disassembles rapidly
Control where microtubules form and they bypass the time for nucleation.
Too many copies of genes
Growth by the addition of monomers
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Any of various pathologic changes seen in living organisms in response to excessive levels of cytotoxic oxidants and free radicals in the environment.
An assay with actin over myosin
Force x distance
What is DAG?
Allow very specific ions to cross membranes by creating a channel/tunnel through the cell membrane
Stacking by alternating between alpha and beta tubulins
An assay with kinesin or dynein and microtubules
Load bearing filaments
Molecular sized apparatus that converts energy to work
What is cAMP?
What enzymes act upon
Actin filament stabilizer; leads to liver failure if ingested.
Any device that changes some measurable quantity into another measurable quantity
A system that’s based in cytoskeleton of neurons that is responsible for transporting materials such as organelles, vesicles… etc.
Speed of movement
A substance can be called this if you can put one wavelength in and get a different wavelength out
Normal though harmful byproduct of oxidative metabolism
Dynein that is used for cargo transport
Inherited
Where a specific kind of RNA (ribosomal) is being made
Binds and hydrolyzes GTP
Causes disassembly of microtubules
Oxidizes proteins in a more harmful and irreversible way
Shut down mitosis
Molecular motor that takes cargo to periphery of cell
Faces outside world
Interacts with hormone; determines ligand specificity
Protein constituents know how to orient themselves to create the cytoskeleton via long filaments
Microtubule based motors that are minus-end directed
Elimination of toxins
One event makes tons of second messengers
Something that binds to a receptor
Break protein chains through hydrolysis (breaking apart water)
New growth off of the main actin filament
Molecular motor that takes cargo to center of cell

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