Cell and Molecular Bio Test 1 Part 2

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Can you name the Cell and Molecular Bio Test 1 Part 2?

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Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Proteins that transport solutes together
Speed of movement
The folded bits in the mitochondria
Twitching
Interacts with hormone; determines ligand specificity
Inherited
Using RNA as a template for making protein
Oxidizes proteins in a more harmful and irreversible way
Monomer concentration [m] at which the rate of monomer addition equals the rate of monomer loss.
What is IP3?
Turn things off
Protein constituents know how to orient themselves to create the cytoskeleton via long filaments
A large chunk of the microtubule disassembles rapidly
There is a limit as to how fast an enzyme can go; one substrate move in and products move out before the next substrate moves in
Form the tonofilaments of epithelia, found in skin and hair
Any device that changes some measurable quantity into another measurable quantity
Incorrect tracking of the eye
Force x distance
An assay with actin over myosin
What enzymes act upon
Proteins that exchange solutes
Relates time to the mean squared distance traveled
Amount of time spent generating force
Made of actin and actin-binding proteins, responsible for cell shape, contraction, motility, and cellular transport
Microtubule based motors that are mostly plus-end directed
Determines G protein specificity
Shut down mitosis
What is Ca2+?
Soda straw tubes, made out of tubulins, used for intracellular transport. Very stiff, grow from the + end
Protein changes its shape in a way to where it no longer functions
Makes branch points on actin filaments and nucleates new filament growth.
A motor is called this if it can walk continuously along a filament without falling off
Stabilizes microtubules, blocking cell division
Binds and hydrolyzes GTP
Any of various pathologic changes seen in living organisms in response to excessive levels of cytotoxic oxidants and free radicals in the environment.
Stabilize nerve axons by maintaining girth
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Protein that forms filaments for muscle contraction
What SOD converts superoxide into
A system that’s based in cytoskeleton of neurons that is responsible for transporting materials such as organelles, vesicles… etc.
Small molecules that convey the message from the receptor to the cell interior.
Binds the relative cargo
What is cAMP?
New growth off of the main actin filament
Stacking by alternating between alpha and beta tubulins
Plus-end directed, toward the periphery
Away from the middle
Dynein that is used for cargo transport
A flattened extension of a cell, by which it moves over or adheres to a surface
Key activator of Arp2/3 that is itself activated by G protein coupled receptors.
Rate of using ATP
The filling in the mitochondria
Lend lateral strength to tissues, stable, they are not polar
Breaking apart water (hydrolysis) in the process of breaking protein chains
Control where microtubules form and they bypass the time for nucleation.
Molecular sized apparatus that converts energy to work
Turn things on
Feeling of motion (spinning)
Monomer buffer
Copying DNA into RNA
Notable example of MTOC
Actin filament stabilizer; leads to liver failure if ingested.
Same enzyme doing basically the same reaction but in a different way
Growth by the addition of monomers
Connecting a hormone to a very specific effector
Normal though harmful byproduct of oxidative metabolism
Handles Oxidative stress in the body.
Two different proteins stuck together
Energy bearing compound
The beginning of chemical or physical changes at discrete points in a system. Helps the actin filaments start growing.
Top of “hump” in energy diagram of reaction
Length one step of a motor makes
One event makes tons of second messengers
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Shuttle that promotes nucleotide exchange
A temporary protrusion of the surface of an ameboid cell for movement and feeding
“Hump” to get over on its way to lower energy
Maximum amount of force a motor can generate
Molecular motor that takes cargo to center of cell
Microtubule based motors that are minus-end directed
An assay with kinesin or dynein and microtubules
Molecular motor that takes cargo to periphery of cell
Exchanges three sodium ions OUT and two potassium ions IN utilizing one ATP (ATP releases a P, becomes ADP, causes pump to open)
A substance can be called this if you can put one wavelength in and get a different wavelength out
Elimination of toxins
Where a specific kind of RNA (ribosomal) is being made
Portion that is connected to filament
Something that binds to a receptor
Allows a reaction to go faster
Dynein that is used for cilliary and flagellar motion
Acts on ATP to strip off two phosphates turning it into cAMP
Cause unknown in terms of ALS
Allow specific solutes to cross membrane
Load bearing filaments
Break protein chains through hydrolysis (breaking apart water)
Causes disassembly of microtubules
Due to multiple copies of a gene the effect of a gene can be enhanced
Faces outside world
Altered vision and confusion
What does cAMP activate?
Too many copies of genes
Basic subunit for filaments
Faces inside world of body
Type of drugs that treat cancer
Double membrane around the nucleus
What is DAG?
Accelerates the movement of a solute down it’s electrochemical gradient
Allow very specific ions to cross membranes by creating a channel/tunnel through the cell membrane
Other proteins or molecules that are necessary to keep the enzyme activated

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