Cell and Molecular Bio Test 1 Part 2

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Can you name the Cell and Molecular Bio Test 1 Part 2?

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Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Handles Oxidative stress in the body.
Two different proteins stuck together
Using RNA as a template for making protein
Actin filament stabilizer; leads to liver failure if ingested.
“Hump” to get over on its way to lower energy
Dynein that is used for cargo transport
What is IP3?
Portion that is connected to filament
Breaking apart water (hydrolysis) in the process of breaking protein chains
Due to multiple copies of a gene the effect of a gene can be enhanced
Twitching
What is DAG?
Molecular sized apparatus that converts energy to work
A large chunk of the microtubule disassembles rapidly
Protein constituents know how to orient themselves to create the cytoskeleton via long filaments
Basic subunit for filaments
One event makes tons of second messengers
Turn things on
What does cAMP activate?
Normal though harmful byproduct of oxidative metabolism
Determines G protein specificity
Amount of time spent generating force
Break protein chains through hydrolysis (breaking apart water)
Shut down mitosis
Energy bearing compound
Soda straw tubes, made out of tubulins, used for intracellular transport. Very stiff, grow from the + end
An assay with actin over myosin
Type of drugs that treat cancer
Turn things off
A substance can be called this if you can put one wavelength in and get a different wavelength out
Any of various pathologic changes seen in living organisms in response to excessive levels of cytotoxic oxidants and free radicals in the environment.
Where a specific kind of RNA (ribosomal) is being made
Lend lateral strength to tissues, stable, they are not polar
Speed of movement
Top of “hump” in energy diagram of reaction
Makes branch points on actin filaments and nucleates new filament growth.
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
What enzymes act upon
Copying DNA into RNA
Allow very specific ions to cross membranes by creating a channel/tunnel through the cell membrane
Molecular motor that takes cargo to periphery of cell
A temporary protrusion of the surface of an ameboid cell for movement and feeding
Something that binds to a receptor
Elimination of toxins
A motor is called this if it can walk continuously along a filament without falling off
Inherited
Binds the relative cargo
Faces outside world
Any device that changes some measurable quantity into another measurable quantity
Key activator of Arp2/3 that is itself activated by G protein coupled receptors.
Too many copies of genes
Relates time to the mean squared distance traveled
Growth by the addition of monomers
A flattened extension of a cell, by which it moves over or adheres to a surface
Monomer buffer
Rate of using ATP
Double membrane around the nucleus
Microtubule based motors that are mostly plus-end directed
Dynein that is used for cilliary and flagellar motion
The filling in the mitochondria
Small molecules that convey the message from the receptor to the cell interior.
Protein changes its shape in a way to where it no longer functions
Stabilize nerve axons by maintaining girth
Causes disassembly of microtubules
Proteins that exchange solutes
Cause unknown in terms of ALS
Length one step of a motor makes
Made of actin and actin-binding proteins, responsible for cell shape, contraction, motility, and cellular transport
What SOD converts superoxide into
What is cAMP?
Feeling of motion (spinning)
The folded bits in the mitochondria
Plus-end directed, toward the periphery
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
New growth off of the main actin filament
Shuttle that promotes nucleotide exchange
Incorrect tracking of the eye
Acts on ATP to strip off two phosphates turning it into cAMP
Allows a reaction to go faster
Away from the middle
A system that’s based in cytoskeleton of neurons that is responsible for transporting materials such as organelles, vesicles… etc.
Other proteins or molecules that are necessary to keep the enzyme activated
Proteins that transport solutes together
Altered vision and confusion
Accelerates the movement of a solute down it’s electrochemical gradient
Allow specific solutes to cross membrane
Connecting a hormone to a very specific effector
Stacking by alternating between alpha and beta tubulins
Form the tonofilaments of epithelia, found in skin and hair
Force x distance
Molecular motor that takes cargo to center of cell
Protein that forms filaments for muscle contraction
Same enzyme doing basically the same reaction but in a different way
Exchanges three sodium ions OUT and two potassium ions IN utilizing one ATP (ATP releases a P, becomes ADP, causes pump to open)
Binds and hydrolyzes GTP
Oxidizes proteins in a more harmful and irreversible way
Control where microtubules form and they bypass the time for nucleation.
Load bearing filaments
Maximum amount of force a motor can generate
What is Ca2+?
Faces inside world of body
Microtubule based motors that are minus-end directed
Interacts with hormone; determines ligand specificity
An assay with kinesin or dynein and microtubules
The beginning of chemical or physical changes at discrete points in a system. Helps the actin filaments start growing.
Stabilizes microtubules, blocking cell division
Monomer concentration [m] at which the rate of monomer addition equals the rate of monomer loss.
There is a limit as to how fast an enzyme can go; one substrate move in and products move out before the next substrate moves in
Notable example of MTOC

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