Cell and Molecular Bio Test 1 Part 2

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Can you name the Cell and Molecular Bio Test 1 Part 2?

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Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Molecular sized apparatus that converts energy to work
Form the tonofilaments of epithelia, found in skin and hair
Something that binds to a receptor
What SOD converts superoxide into
Protein constituents know how to orient themselves to create the cytoskeleton via long filaments
Control where microtubules form and they bypass the time for nucleation.
Relates time to the mean squared distance traveled
The folded bits in the mitochondria
Connecting a hormone to a very specific effector
Allow specific solutes to cross membrane
Shut down mitosis
Normal though harmful byproduct of oxidative metabolism
Small molecules that convey the message from the receptor to the cell interior.
Rate of using ATP
Handles Oxidative stress in the body.
Actin filament stabilizer; leads to liver failure if ingested.
Double membrane around the nucleus
Determines G protein specificity
Protein changes its shape in a way to where it no longer functions
Microtubule based motors that are minus-end directed
Shuttle that promotes nucleotide exchange
“Hump” to get over on its way to lower energy
There is a limit as to how fast an enzyme can go; one substrate move in and products move out before the next substrate moves in
Acts on ATP to strip off two phosphates turning it into cAMP
A flattened extension of a cell, by which it moves over or adheres to a surface
Plus-end directed, toward the periphery
Using RNA as a template for making protein
Altered vision and confusion
Elimination of toxins
What is IP3?
Too many copies of genes
Microtubule based motors that are mostly plus-end directed
Allows a reaction to go faster
Where a specific kind of RNA (ribosomal) is being made
Inherited
Makes branch points on actin filaments and nucleates new filament growth.
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Interacts with hormone; determines ligand specificity
Binds and hydrolyzes GTP
The filling in the mitochondria
Oxidizes proteins in a more harmful and irreversible way
Turn things on
One event makes tons of second messengers
Molecular motor that takes cargo to periphery of cell
Turn things off
Due to multiple copies of a gene the effect of a gene can be enhanced
Incorrect tracking of the eye
A motor is called this if it can walk continuously along a filament without falling off
Maximum amount of force a motor can generate
Away from the middle
Stabilizes microtubules, blocking cell division
Lend lateral strength to tissues, stable, they are not polar
The beginning of chemical or physical changes at discrete points in a system. Helps the actin filaments start growing.
Twitching
Load bearing filaments
A system that’s based in cytoskeleton of neurons that is responsible for transporting materials such as organelles, vesicles… etc.
An assay with kinesin or dynein and microtubules
Any of various pathologic changes seen in living organisms in response to excessive levels of cytotoxic oxidants and free radicals in the environment.
Break protein chains through hydrolysis (breaking apart water)
Monomer concentration [m] at which the rate of monomer addition equals the rate of monomer loss.
Stacking by alternating between alpha and beta tubulins
Proteins that exchange solutes
What does cAMP activate?
Binds the relative cargo
Notable example of MTOC
Accelerates the movement of a solute down it’s electrochemical gradient
Dynein that is used for cilliary and flagellar motion
Feeling of motion (spinning)
Basic subunit for filaments
Monomer buffer
Key activator of Arp2/3 that is itself activated by G protein coupled receptors.
Breaking apart water (hydrolysis) in the process of breaking protein chains
Proteins that transport solutes together
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
A temporary protrusion of the surface of an ameboid cell for movement and feeding
Faces outside world
Allow very specific ions to cross membranes by creating a channel/tunnel through the cell membrane
New growth off of the main actin filament
Type of drugs that treat cancer
Dynein that is used for cargo transport
Top of “hump” in energy diagram of reaction
What is Ca2+?
Portion that is connected to filament
Same enzyme doing basically the same reaction but in a different way
Protein that forms filaments for muscle contraction
Faces inside world of body
Causes disassembly of microtubules
Stabilize nerve axons by maintaining girth
A substance can be called this if you can put one wavelength in and get a different wavelength out
Any device that changes some measurable quantity into another measurable quantity
Two different proteins stuck together
Made of actin and actin-binding proteins, responsible for cell shape, contraction, motility, and cellular transport
Speed of movement
Length one step of a motor makes
Force x distance
Cause unknown in terms of ALS
Exchanges three sodium ions OUT and two potassium ions IN utilizing one ATP (ATP releases a P, becomes ADP, causes pump to open)
An assay with actin over myosin
A large chunk of the microtubule disassembles rapidly
What is DAG?
What enzymes act upon
What is cAMP?
Soda straw tubes, made out of tubulins, used for intracellular transport. Very stiff, grow from the + end
Energy bearing compound
Amount of time spent generating force
Other proteins or molecules that are necessary to keep the enzyme activated
Growth by the addition of monomers
Copying DNA into RNA
Molecular motor that takes cargo to center of cell

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