Cell and Molecular Bio Test 1 Part 2

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Can you name the Cell and Molecular Bio Test 1 Part 2?

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Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Any device that changes some measurable quantity into another measurable quantity
Oxidizes proteins in a more harmful and irreversible way
A substance can be called this if you can put one wavelength in and get a different wavelength out
Molecular motor that takes cargo to center of cell
Determines G protein specificity
Binds the relative cargo
Form the tonofilaments of epithelia, found in skin and hair
Allow specific solutes to cross membrane
Away from the middle
Faces outside world
A temporary protrusion of the surface of an ameboid cell for movement and feeding
Force x distance
Exchanges three sodium ions OUT and two potassium ions IN utilizing one ATP (ATP releases a P, becomes ADP, causes pump to open)
Accelerates the movement of a solute down it’s electrochemical gradient
Stabilize nerve axons by maintaining girth
There is a limit as to how fast an enzyme can go; one substrate move in and products move out before the next substrate moves in
Actin filament stabilizer; leads to liver failure if ingested.
Amount of time spent generating force
Breaking apart water (hydrolysis) in the process of breaking protein chains
The folded bits in the mitochondria
Lend lateral strength to tissues, stable, they are not polar
Interacts with hormone; determines ligand specificity
What is Ca2+?
An assay with kinesin or dynein and microtubules
Cause unknown in terms of ALS
Portion that is connected to filament
The beginning of chemical or physical changes at discrete points in a system. Helps the actin filaments start growing.
Key activator of Arp2/3 that is itself activated by G protein coupled receptors.
Proteins that exchange solutes
Small molecules that convey the message from the receptor to the cell interior.
A system that’s based in cytoskeleton of neurons that is responsible for transporting materials such as organelles, vesicles… etc.
Control where microtubules form and they bypass the time for nucleation.
Where a specific kind of RNA (ribosomal) is being made
New growth off of the main actin filament
Growth by the addition of monomers
Turn things off
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Causes disassembly of microtubules
Faces inside world of body
What is DAG?
Microtubule based motors that are minus-end directed
Shuttle that promotes nucleotide exchange
Energy bearing compound
Stabilizes microtubules, blocking cell division
Type of drugs that treat cancer
Any of various pathologic changes seen in living organisms in response to excessive levels of cytotoxic oxidants and free radicals in the environment.
Acts on ATP to strip off two phosphates turning it into cAMP
An assay with actin over myosin
Microtubule based motors that are mostly plus-end directed
Notable example of MTOC
Shut down mitosis
Copying DNA into RNA
Something that binds to a receptor
Plus-end directed, toward the periphery
Proteins that transport solutes together
Break protein chains through hydrolysis (breaking apart water)
Handles Oxidative stress in the body.
Protein changes its shape in a way to where it no longer functions
Turn things on
Length one step of a motor makes
Feeling of motion (spinning)
Soda straw tubes, made out of tubulins, used for intracellular transport. Very stiff, grow from the + end
Relates time to the mean squared distance traveled
Other proteins or molecules that are necessary to keep the enzyme activated
Stacking by alternating between alpha and beta tubulins
What is cAMP?
Elimination of toxins
Monomer concentration [m] at which the rate of monomer addition equals the rate of monomer loss.
Altered vision and confusion
The filling in the mitochondria
Load bearing filaments
Too many copies of genes
Binds and hydrolyzes GTP
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
What SOD converts superoxide into
Dynein that is used for cilliary and flagellar motion
Incorrect tracking of the eye
A large chunk of the microtubule disassembles rapidly
Maximum amount of force a motor can generate
Two different proteins stuck together
Double membrane around the nucleus
What enzymes act upon
Molecular motor that takes cargo to periphery of cell
Twitching
Allow very specific ions to cross membranes by creating a channel/tunnel through the cell membrane
Connecting a hormone to a very specific effector
Makes branch points on actin filaments and nucleates new filament growth.
Using RNA as a template for making protein
Molecular sized apparatus that converts energy to work
Made of actin and actin-binding proteins, responsible for cell shape, contraction, motility, and cellular transport
Normal though harmful byproduct of oxidative metabolism
Same enzyme doing basically the same reaction but in a different way
Rate of using ATP
Allows a reaction to go faster
Top of “hump” in energy diagram of reaction
Dynein that is used for cargo transport
What does cAMP activate?
Protein constituents know how to orient themselves to create the cytoskeleton via long filaments
Inherited
Protein that forms filaments for muscle contraction
Monomer buffer
Basic subunit for filaments
Due to multiple copies of a gene the effect of a gene can be enhanced
One event makes tons of second messengers
A flattened extension of a cell, by which it moves over or adheres to a surface
A motor is called this if it can walk continuously along a filament without falling off
“Hump” to get over on its way to lower energy
What is IP3?
Speed of movement

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