Cell and Molecular Bio Test 1 Part 2

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Can you name the Cell and Molecular Bio Test 1 Part 2?

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Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Double membrane around the nucleus
Protein changes its shape in a way to where it no longer functions
Elimination of toxins
Altered vision and confusion
Molecular motor that takes cargo to center of cell
Handles Oxidative stress in the body.
Amount of time spent generating force
Made of actin and actin-binding proteins, responsible for cell shape, contraction, motility, and cellular transport
Allow very specific ions to cross membranes by creating a channel/tunnel through the cell membrane
Load bearing filaments
Turn things off
Stacking by alternating between alpha and beta tubulins
A motor is called this if it can walk continuously along a filament without falling off
Faces inside world of body
Key activator of Arp2/3 that is itself activated by G protein coupled receptors.
Twitching
Interacts with hormone; determines ligand specificity
Proteins that transport solutes together
Turn things on
Too many copies of genes
Binds and hydrolyzes GTP
Growth by the addition of monomers
Other proteins or molecules that are necessary to keep the enzyme activated
A large chunk of the microtubule disassembles rapidly
A system that’s based in cytoskeleton of neurons that is responsible for transporting materials such as organelles, vesicles… etc.
Stabilize nerve axons by maintaining girth
Accelerates the movement of a solute down it’s electrochemical gradient
Small molecules that convey the message from the receptor to the cell interior.
Due to multiple copies of a gene the effect of a gene can be enhanced
Shuttle that promotes nucleotide exchange
The filling in the mitochondria
Any device that changes some measurable quantity into another measurable quantity
Any of various pathologic changes seen in living organisms in response to excessive levels of cytotoxic oxidants and free radicals in the environment.
Acts on ATP to strip off two phosphates turning it into cAMP
Maximum amount of force a motor can generate
Oxidizes proteins in a more harmful and irreversible way
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Control where microtubules form and they bypass the time for nucleation.
One event makes tons of second messengers
Normal though harmful byproduct of oxidative metabolism
Determines G protein specificity
Form the tonofilaments of epithelia, found in skin and hair
Exchanges three sodium ions OUT and two potassium ions IN utilizing one ATP (ATP releases a P, becomes ADP, causes pump to open)
Actin filament stabilizer; leads to liver failure if ingested.
Proteins that exchange solutes
Something that binds to a receptor
There is a limit as to how fast an enzyme can go; one substrate move in and products move out before the next substrate moves in
Microtubule based motors that are minus-end directed
Dynein that is used for cilliary and flagellar motion
Cause unknown in terms of ALS
An assay with kinesin or dynein and microtubules
Length one step of a motor makes
New growth off of the main actin filament
Binds the relative cargo
Basic subunit for filaments
Energy bearing compound
Connecting a hormone to a very specific effector
What does cAMP activate?
Type of drugs that treat cancer
Portion that is connected to filament
Inherited
What enzymes act upon
Notable example of MTOC
Molecular sized apparatus that converts energy to work
Monomer concentration [m] at which the rate of monomer addition equals the rate of monomer loss.
“Hump” to get over on its way to lower energy
A flattened extension of a cell, by which it moves over or adheres to a surface
Two different proteins stuck together
Faces outside world
Monomer buffer
A temporary protrusion of the surface of an ameboid cell for movement and feeding
Molecular motor that takes cargo to periphery of cell
Copying DNA into RNA
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Soda straw tubes, made out of tubulins, used for intracellular transport. Very stiff, grow from the + end
Breaking apart water (hydrolysis) in the process of breaking protein chains
Allow specific solutes to cross membrane
Same enzyme doing basically the same reaction but in a different way
Lend lateral strength to tissues, stable, they are not polar
Plus-end directed, toward the periphery
What is IP3?
Causes disassembly of microtubules
Shut down mitosis
Speed of movement
Rate of using ATP
Away from the middle
Force x distance
A substance can be called this if you can put one wavelength in and get a different wavelength out
Makes branch points on actin filaments and nucleates new filament growth.
What is Ca2+?
What is DAG?
Microtubule based motors that are mostly plus-end directed
Feeling of motion (spinning)
Top of “hump” in energy diagram of reaction
What SOD converts superoxide into
Incorrect tracking of the eye
The beginning of chemical or physical changes at discrete points in a system. Helps the actin filaments start growing.
Using RNA as a template for making protein
Protein constituents know how to orient themselves to create the cytoskeleton via long filaments
The folded bits in the mitochondria
Stabilizes microtubules, blocking cell division
An assay with actin over myosin
Relates time to the mean squared distance traveled
Allows a reaction to go faster
Dynein that is used for cargo transport
Protein that forms filaments for muscle contraction
Where a specific kind of RNA (ribosomal) is being made
What is cAMP?
Break protein chains through hydrolysis (breaking apart water)

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