Cell and Molecular Bio Test 1 Part 2

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Can you name the Cell and Molecular Bio Test 1 Part 2?

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Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
There is a limit as to how fast an enzyme can go; one substrate move in and products move out before the next substrate moves in
Turn things on
What does cAMP activate?
Acts on ATP to strip off two phosphates turning it into cAMP
Molecular sized apparatus that converts energy to work
Force x distance
Interacts with hormone; determines ligand specificity
What is Ca2+?
Amount of time spent generating force
Made of actin and actin-binding proteins, responsible for cell shape, contraction, motility, and cellular transport
Form the tonofilaments of epithelia, found in skin and hair
Top of “hump” in energy diagram of reaction
Break protein chains through hydrolysis (breaking apart water)
Monomer concentration [m] at which the rate of monomer addition equals the rate of monomer loss.
Cause unknown in terms of ALS
The filling in the mitochondria
Speed of movement
Something that binds to a receptor
Rate of using ATP
Where a specific kind of RNA (ribosomal) is being made
Faces outside world
Twitching
Maximum amount of force a motor can generate
A large chunk of the microtubule disassembles rapidly
Molecular motor that takes cargo to periphery of cell
Allow specific solutes to cross membrane
What is cAMP?
Causes disassembly of microtubules
Allow very specific ions to cross membranes by creating a channel/tunnel through the cell membrane
Basic subunit for filaments
Dynein that is used for cilliary and flagellar motion
Any of various pathologic changes seen in living organisms in response to excessive levels of cytotoxic oxidants and free radicals in the environment.
Connecting a hormone to a very specific effector
Protein constituents know how to orient themselves to create the cytoskeleton via long filaments
Length one step of a motor makes
Elimination of toxins
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Molecular motor that takes cargo to center of cell
Binds the relative cargo
Makes branch points on actin filaments and nucleates new filament growth.
Normal though harmful byproduct of oxidative metabolism
A flattened extension of a cell, by which it moves over or adheres to a surface
Due to multiple copies of a gene the effect of a gene can be enhanced
A system that’s based in cytoskeleton of neurons that is responsible for transporting materials such as organelles, vesicles… etc.
Load bearing filaments
Stabilize nerve axons by maintaining girth
Type of drugs that treat cancer
Monomer buffer
Same enzyme doing basically the same reaction but in a different way
The beginning of chemical or physical changes at discrete points in a system. Helps the actin filaments start growing.
One event makes tons of second messengers
Exchanges three sodium ions OUT and two potassium ions IN utilizing one ATP (ATP releases a P, becomes ADP, causes pump to open)
A motor is called this if it can walk continuously along a filament without falling off
Oxidizes proteins in a more harmful and irreversible way
Binds and hydrolyzes GTP
Protein that forms filaments for muscle contraction
Any device that changes some measurable quantity into another measurable quantity
An assay with actin over myosin
A substance can be called this if you can put one wavelength in and get a different wavelength out
What SOD converts superoxide into
Accelerates the movement of a solute down it’s electrochemical gradient
“Hump” to get over on its way to lower energy
Feeling of motion (spinning)
The folded bits in the mitochondria
Double membrane around the nucleus
Stacking by alternating between alpha and beta tubulins
Away from the middle
Handles Oxidative stress in the body.
What is DAG?
A temporary protrusion of the surface of an ameboid cell for movement and feeding
Two different proteins stuck together
Plus-end directed, toward the periphery
Small molecules that convey the message from the receptor to the cell interior.
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Shuttle that promotes nucleotide exchange
Portion that is connected to filament
Dynein that is used for cargo transport
Relates time to the mean squared distance traveled
What enzymes act upon
Microtubule based motors that are minus-end directed
Too many copies of genes
Proteins that transport solutes together
Energy bearing compound
Lend lateral strength to tissues, stable, they are not polar
What is IP3?
Incorrect tracking of the eye
Other proteins or molecules that are necessary to keep the enzyme activated
New growth off of the main actin filament
Using RNA as a template for making protein
Proteins that exchange solutes
Altered vision and confusion
An assay with kinesin or dynein and microtubules
Inherited
Copying DNA into RNA
Key activator of Arp2/3 that is itself activated by G protein coupled receptors.
Stabilizes microtubules, blocking cell division
Protein changes its shape in a way to where it no longer functions
Control where microtubules form and they bypass the time for nucleation.
Microtubule based motors that are mostly plus-end directed
Determines G protein specificity
Growth by the addition of monomers
Faces inside world of body
Turn things off
Shut down mitosis
Breaking apart water (hydrolysis) in the process of breaking protein chains
Allows a reaction to go faster
Actin filament stabilizer; leads to liver failure if ingested.
Soda straw tubes, made out of tubulins, used for intracellular transport. Very stiff, grow from the + end
Notable example of MTOC

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