Cell and Molecular Bio Test 1 Part 2

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Can you name the Cell and Molecular Bio Test 1 Part 2?

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Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Force x distance
Oxidizes proteins in a more harmful and irreversible way
A flattened extension of a cell, by which it moves over or adheres to a surface
A motor is called this if it can walk continuously along a filament without falling off
Other proteins or molecules that are necessary to keep the enzyme activated
Lend lateral strength to tissues, stable, they are not polar
Key activator of Arp2/3 that is itself activated by G protein coupled receptors.
Soda straw tubes, made out of tubulins, used for intracellular transport. Very stiff, grow from the + end
A temporary protrusion of the surface of an ameboid cell for movement and feeding
Type of drugs that treat cancer
Connecting a hormone to a very specific effector
Binds the relative cargo
Turn things off
An assay with kinesin or dynein and microtubules
Altered vision and confusion
What is DAG?
Protein constituents know how to orient themselves to create the cytoskeleton via long filaments
Proteins that transport solutes together
Faces outside world
Energy bearing compound
Stabilize nerve axons by maintaining girth
“Hump” to get over on its way to lower energy
Proteins that exchange solutes
Double membrane around the nucleus
Protein that forms filaments for muscle contraction
Turn things on
Two different proteins stuck together
What enzymes act upon
Notable example of MTOC
Exchanges three sodium ions OUT and two potassium ions IN utilizing one ATP (ATP releases a P, becomes ADP, causes pump to open)
Causes disassembly of microtubules
Any device that changes some measurable quantity into another measurable quantity
A system that’s based in cytoskeleton of neurons that is responsible for transporting materials such as organelles, vesicles… etc.
Stacking by alternating between alpha and beta tubulins
Makes branch points on actin filaments and nucleates new filament growth.
Basic subunit for filaments
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Speed of movement
The filling in the mitochondria
Allows a reaction to go faster
Control where microtubules form and they bypass the time for nucleation.
Shut down mitosis
Shuttle that promotes nucleotide exchange
Amount of time spent generating force
Inherited
Handles Oxidative stress in the body.
Length one step of a motor makes
A large chunk of the microtubule disassembles rapidly
Dynein that is used for cilliary and flagellar motion
Binds and hydrolyzes GTP
Away from the middle
Maximum amount of force a motor can generate
Using RNA as a template for making protein
Accelerates the movement of a solute down it’s electrochemical gradient
Growth by the addition of monomers
Monomer buffer
Relates time to the mean squared distance traveled
Break protein chains through hydrolysis (breaking apart water)
Breaking apart water (hydrolysis) in the process of breaking protein chains
Small molecules that convey the message from the receptor to the cell interior.
An assay with actin over myosin
Incorrect tracking of the eye
Due to multiple copies of a gene the effect of a gene can be enhanced
Allow specific solutes to cross membrane
New growth off of the main actin filament
What is Ca2+?
What is IP3?
Normal though harmful byproduct of oxidative metabolism
One event makes tons of second messengers
The folded bits in the mitochondria
Copying DNA into RNA
A substance can be called this if you can put one wavelength in and get a different wavelength out
Microtubule based motors that are mostly plus-end directed
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Acts on ATP to strip off two phosphates turning it into cAMP
What does cAMP activate?
Microtubule based motors that are minus-end directed
Load bearing filaments
Faces inside world of body
Elimination of toxins
Determines G protein specificity
Plus-end directed, toward the periphery
Feeling of motion (spinning)
There is a limit as to how fast an enzyme can go; one substrate move in and products move out before the next substrate moves in
Interacts with hormone; determines ligand specificity
Made of actin and actin-binding proteins, responsible for cell shape, contraction, motility, and cellular transport
Protein changes its shape in a way to where it no longer functions
Top of “hump” in energy diagram of reaction
Molecular motor that takes cargo to periphery of cell
Portion that is connected to filament
Allow very specific ions to cross membranes by creating a channel/tunnel through the cell membrane
What SOD converts superoxide into
The beginning of chemical or physical changes at discrete points in a system. Helps the actin filaments start growing.
Form the tonofilaments of epithelia, found in skin and hair
Dynein that is used for cargo transport
Too many copies of genes
Any of various pathologic changes seen in living organisms in response to excessive levels of cytotoxic oxidants and free radicals in the environment.
Same enzyme doing basically the same reaction but in a different way
Molecular motor that takes cargo to center of cell
Cause unknown in terms of ALS
Monomer concentration [m] at which the rate of monomer addition equals the rate of monomer loss.
Actin filament stabilizer; leads to liver failure if ingested.
Stabilizes microtubules, blocking cell division
What is cAMP?
Twitching
Rate of using ATP
Where a specific kind of RNA (ribosomal) is being made
Something that binds to a receptor
Molecular sized apparatus that converts energy to work

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