Cell and Molecular Bio Test 1 Part 2

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Can you name the Cell and Molecular Bio Test 1 Part 2?

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Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Faces inside world of body
Relates time to the mean squared distance traveled
“Hump” to get over on its way to lower energy
Twitching
A flattened extension of a cell, by which it moves over or adheres to a surface
A system that’s based in cytoskeleton of neurons that is responsible for transporting materials such as organelles, vesicles… etc.
Portion that is connected to filament
Break protein chains through hydrolysis (breaking apart water)
New growth off of the main actin filament
Double membrane around the nucleus
Microtubule based motors that are minus-end directed
Causes disassembly of microtubules
Made of actin and actin-binding proteins, responsible for cell shape, contraction, motility, and cellular transport
Binds the relative cargo
Protein constituents know how to orient themselves to create the cytoskeleton via long filaments
Same enzyme doing basically the same reaction but in a different way
Molecular sized apparatus that converts energy to work
Protein changes its shape in a way to where it no longer functions
The filling in the mitochondria
A large chunk of the microtubule disassembles rapidly
Makes branch points on actin filaments and nucleates new filament growth.
Proteins that exchange solutes
What SOD converts superoxide into
Handles Oxidative stress in the body.
Small molecules that convey the message from the receptor to the cell interior.
Key activator of Arp2/3 that is itself activated by G protein coupled receptors.
Where a specific kind of RNA (ribosomal) is being made
Other proteins or molecules that are necessary to keep the enzyme activated
The folded bits in the mitochondria
Two different proteins stuck together
Something that binds to a receptor
Microtubule based motors that are mostly plus-end directed
Load bearing filaments
Amount of time spent generating force
Connecting a hormone to a very specific effector
Copying DNA into RNA
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Exchanges three sodium ions OUT and two potassium ions IN utilizing one ATP (ATP releases a P, becomes ADP, causes pump to open)
Turn things off
Actin filament stabilizer; leads to liver failure if ingested.
Maximum amount of force a motor can generate
Normal though harmful byproduct of oxidative metabolism
Breaking apart water (hydrolysis) in the process of breaking protein chains
Allows a reaction to go faster
Basic subunit for filaments
Rate of using ATP
There is a limit as to how fast an enzyme can go; one substrate move in and products move out before the next substrate moves in
Stabilize nerve axons by maintaining girth
Length one step of a motor makes
Growth by the addition of monomers
Accelerates the movement of a solute down it’s electrochemical gradient
A temporary protrusion of the surface of an ameboid cell for movement and feeding
Energy bearing compound
What is Ca2+?
Control where microtubules form and they bypass the time for nucleation.
Force x distance
Form the tonofilaments of epithelia, found in skin and hair
Away from the middle
Inherited
Molecular motor that takes cargo to center of cell
What is IP3?
Soda straw tubes, made out of tubulins, used for intracellular transport. Very stiff, grow from the + end
What is cAMP?
Type of drugs that treat cancer
Top of “hump” in energy diagram of reaction
Faces outside world
Shuttle that promotes nucleotide exchange
Acts on ATP to strip off two phosphates turning it into cAMP
Monomer concentration [m] at which the rate of monomer addition equals the rate of monomer loss.
Altered vision and confusion
Speed of movement
What enzymes act upon
A substance can be called this if you can put one wavelength in and get a different wavelength out
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Using RNA as a template for making protein
Oxidizes proteins in a more harmful and irreversible way
The beginning of chemical or physical changes at discrete points in a system. Helps the actin filaments start growing.
Stabilizes microtubules, blocking cell division
Proteins that transport solutes together
Notable example of MTOC
Too many copies of genes
Binds and hydrolyzes GTP
Any device that changes some measurable quantity into another measurable quantity
Due to multiple copies of a gene the effect of a gene can be enhanced
Dynein that is used for cilliary and flagellar motion
Stacking by alternating between alpha and beta tubulins
Elimination of toxins
A motor is called this if it can walk continuously along a filament without falling off
Monomer buffer
Cause unknown in terms of ALS
What does cAMP activate?
Any of various pathologic changes seen in living organisms in response to excessive levels of cytotoxic oxidants and free radicals in the environment.
Lend lateral strength to tissues, stable, they are not polar
Protein that forms filaments for muscle contraction
Interacts with hormone; determines ligand specificity
Determines G protein specificity
Dynein that is used for cargo transport
Allow specific solutes to cross membrane
Shut down mitosis
Turn things on
Allow very specific ions to cross membranes by creating a channel/tunnel through the cell membrane
Molecular motor that takes cargo to periphery of cell
One event makes tons of second messengers
Plus-end directed, toward the periphery
An assay with actin over myosin
An assay with kinesin or dynein and microtubules
What is DAG?
Feeling of motion (spinning)
Incorrect tracking of the eye

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