Cell and Molecular Bio Test 1 Part 1

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Can you name the terms for Test 1?

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Question/DefinitionAnswer/TermExtra Info
One protein binds to another, thereby activating the enzymatic activity of one of them.
Modifications that occur after the proteins are translated from RNA
Specific membrane protein that binds to each other and helps pull a vesicle and cell membrane together. Extends from vesicle membrane
The use of light measurements to measure how dark something is.
Mucus and “bad stuff”
Chloride Channel that is faulty in Cystic Fibrosis
Condition in which you fail to make or respond to insulin
Low blood pressure
The ejection of mucus, sputum, or fluids from the trachea and lungs by coughing or spitting.
Pertaining to cilia on mucus covered surfaces
White Blood cells responsible for the immune response of the body.
Neurons responsible for movement.
Membrane proteins that bind to one another and help pull vesicle and cell membranes together.
Suffix; too few
Adding/removing groups or cleaving bonds
Physical sign causing bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes.Caused by a lack of oxygen in the blood. Associated with cold temperatures, heart failure, lung diseases, and smothering
Proteins that are bound to the outside of the plasma membrane but not a part of it. (like to sit on bilayer)
One substrate aids or impedes catalysis by another, implying multiple catalytic subunits
Barrier to the transport of larger molecules especially ones that are polar or charged.
Control of function in some way
Property of blood capillary walls that allows for the selective exchange of substances.
Part of an enzyme that serves to bind to an inhibitor in order to regulate the catalytic domain
A condition characterized by an excess of watery fluid collecting in the cavities or tissues of the body.
Guanylyl Cyclase is what type of enzyme?
The attraction of leukocytes by chemical means.
Proteins that are covalently bound to a phospholipid on the exterior of the plasma membrane. (can flow along surface, but never leave)
Neuron that prevents motor neuron activity
Molecule used for communcationExample: NO
Causing diarrhea
Reduction of oxygen supply to a tissue below physiological levels despite adequate perfusion of the tissue by blood.
The progression of the disease
Cells way of taking in material by forming vesicles with outside fluid inside of them.
How many Ca2+ can you transport with one ATP under typical conditions?Intracellular Calcium = .1 uM; Extracellular calcium = 1 mM
Rate at saturation for 1 enzyme molecule (reactions catalyzed per second per molecule)
Enzyme that breaks water bonds
Lethal dose for 50% of the population
The process of pushing through the blood vessel wall into the tissue
A state of 'suspended animation' that some bacteria can adopt when conditions are not ideal for growth. They are analogous to plant seeds and can germinate into growing bacteria wh
Question/DefinitionAnswer/TermExtra Info
Lack of blood flow
Enzyme that transfers groups
Cells with a true distinct nucleus; i.e. multicellular organisms
A layer of cells that lines the inside of certain body cavities, for example, blood vessels.
Form of transport, Primary or Secondary, requires energy.
Enzyme that cleaves synaptobrevin in the middle
Enzyme that removes Phosphate groups
Typically -70mV, measured inside relative to outside
Cause of disease.
The vSNARE found in synaptic vesicles containing neurotransmitters.
Rate at saturation for a given enzyme concentration in moles per unit time.
Substrate concentration that gives ½ maximal velocity, units of Concentration
Imply separate proteins that are stuck to one another and work together; one such protein is a _______ of the assembly.
Outer layer, can refer to skin or the inside of the intestines…etc.
Any of the minute branches into which a bronchus divides, lead to alveoli.
Reduced or deficient ventilation of the lungs, resulting in reduced aeration of blood in the lungs and an increased level of carbon dioxide in the blood.
Enzyme that converts cGMP and cAMP back into their respective counterparts
Inflamation of the joints
Substances released from cells that affect the behavior of neighboring cells; generic term.
Most deadly toxins in the world. Cleave synaptobrevin.
Generally involved in attacks on parasites and multicellular organisms. Distinct Golgi, distinctive granules, normally few in the circulation.
Suffix; too many
Enzyme that stores or passes electrons
Cells without a true distinct nucleus; i.e. bacteria
Any of various phosphorous-containing lipids that are composed mainly of fatty acids, a phosphate group, and a simple organic molecule. Also called phosphatide.
Cells that wait for a trigger to release their contents through the process of degranulation.
Inhibitor that binds to an alternate site to change the conformation of the enzyme.
Keep membranes fluid at low temperatures and reduces fluidity at high temperatures.
Process of transferring a ribosyl group
Difficulty breathing
Passive or facilitated. Dispersion due to random thermal motion.
Rigid contraction paralysis.
Having one dominant and one recessive form of a gene
Process by which vesicles full of crystalline structures, granules, go through exocytosis, dumping their contents to the outside.These granules are toxic to eukaryotic, multicellular organisms, and recruit additional white blood cells (cytokines)
The likely course of a disease or ailment
Build-up of carbon dioxide in the blood produces a shift in the body's pH balance and causes the body's system to become more acidic.Caused by hypoventilation
A G protein inhibitor that increased secretion of water in the intestine, which can produce massive diarrhea.
Inhibits G Proteins
Main costs associated with a given disease. (hospitalization, eppipins) Not including lost income from not being able to work…etc.
Question/DefinitionAnswer/TermExtra Info
Acid that is converted into leukotriene A4 by lipoxygenaseCritical in development (pathogenesis) of asthma (attacks)
Small proteins released from cells that affect the behavior of neighboring cells.
Enzyme found in basophils that converts Arachidonic acid into Leukotriene A4
Promote white cell homing - eosinophils in particular, increased vascular permeability, giving rise to edema, bronchiole constriction due to smooth muscle contraction,and mucus secretion by respiratory epithelial cells.
Specific membrane protein that binds to each other and helps pull a vesicle and cell membrane together. Extends from the cell membrane
Proteins embedded in the plasma membrane.
Structurally and functionally distinct regions of a single protein.
Part of an enzyme that is used for lowering the activation energy for a particular reaction
ΔG for ATP Hydrolysis
Biological catalysts
What is Arginine?
Specific leukotriene responsible for the problems of asthma
Lining of the gut that absorbs nutrients from digested food.
Producing, i.e. they will regenerate their secretory granulesin reference to Eosinophils
The extent or rate of occurrence, especially the number of new cases of a disease in a population over a period of time.
Inside of the lumen (hollow organ)
What is Cysteine?
Noncompetitive inhibitor binds to somewhere besides the active site altering the shape of the enzyme.
Proteins that pass all the way through the plasma membrane.
Energy from an electrochemical gradient is used to drive the transport of another
Taking functions & packing them into one defined region Function of membrane, raises concentrations (need for reactions)
Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate (cGMP) is what?
The addition of a phosphate group
Muscles completely lose contractability
Smaller portion of the toxin. Important part.
Blocking of exocrine pancreatic ducts
Energy from ATP hydrolysis is used directly by the transporter to move a substance
Inside of the bronchioles
Protein that allows chlorine to flow into/out of the cell membrane
The total number of cases of a disease in a given population for a given year.
The addition of ADP-Ribose to the alpha subunit of the G protein, which turns the phosphorylation of GTP off
Activated by cGMP in order to phosphorylate proteins
Add phosphates to proteins
Leave the tissue to become mast cells. Release substances that increase vascular permeability and recruit other immune cells – inflammation.Highly granular
Lack of blood flow from low blood volume
Less Hydrogens bound to carbons in fatty acids. Causing double or triple bonds which lead to kinks in the chain.
Inhibitor that binds to the active site.

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