Cell and Molecular Bio Test 1 Part 1

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Can you name the terms for Test 1?

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Question/DefinitionAnswer/TermExtra Info
The ejection of mucus, sputum, or fluids from the trachea and lungs by coughing or spitting.
Rate at saturation for a given enzyme concentration in moles per unit time.
Neuron that prevents motor neuron activity
Property of blood capillary walls that allows for the selective exchange of substances.
White Blood cells responsible for the immune response of the body.
Lack of blood flow from low blood volume
Most deadly toxins in the world. Cleave synaptobrevin.
Part of an enzyme that is used for lowering the activation energy for a particular reaction
Rate at saturation for 1 enzyme molecule (reactions catalyzed per second per molecule)
Enzyme that stores or passes electrons
Having one dominant and one recessive form of a gene
The process of pushing through the blood vessel wall into the tissue
ΔG for ATP Hydrolysis
Suffix; too many
A layer of cells that lines the inside of certain body cavities, for example, blood vessels.
Cells way of taking in material by forming vesicles with outside fluid inside of them.
Enzyme that converts cGMP and cAMP back into their respective counterparts
Specific membrane protein that binds to each other and helps pull a vesicle and cell membrane together. Extends from vesicle membrane
A state of 'suspended animation' that some bacteria can adopt when conditions are not ideal for growth. They are analogous to plant seeds and can germinate into growing bacteria wh
The extent or rate of occurrence, especially the number of new cases of a disease in a population over a period of time.
The total number of cases of a disease in a given population for a given year.
Condition in which you fail to make or respond to insulin
One protein binds to another, thereby activating the enzymatic activity of one of them.
Control of function in some way
Adding/removing groups or cleaving bonds
Energy from an electrochemical gradient is used to drive the transport of another
Neurons responsible for movement.
Proteins that are covalently bound to a phospholipid on the exterior of the plasma membrane. (can flow along surface, but never leave)
Enzyme that cleaves synaptobrevin in the middle
Build-up of carbon dioxide in the blood produces a shift in the body's pH balance and causes the body's system to become more acidic.Caused by hypoventilation
Passive or facilitated. Dispersion due to random thermal motion.
Substances released from cells that affect the behavior of neighboring cells; generic term.
Reduction of oxygen supply to a tissue below physiological levels despite adequate perfusion of the tissue by blood.
Activated by cGMP in order to phosphorylate proteins
Chloride Channel that is faulty in Cystic Fibrosis
The likely course of a disease or ailment
Enzyme that removes Phosphate groups
Enzyme found in basophils that converts Arachidonic acid into Leukotriene A4
Question/DefinitionAnswer/TermExtra Info
Process of transferring a ribosyl group
Leave the tissue to become mast cells. Release substances that increase vascular permeability and recruit other immune cells – inflammation.Highly granular
Inhibitor that binds to an alternate site to change the conformation of the enzyme.
Membrane proteins that bind to one another and help pull vesicle and cell membranes together.
What is Arginine?
The use of light measurements to measure how dark something is.
Mucus and “bad stuff”
Reduced or deficient ventilation of the lungs, resulting in reduced aeration of blood in the lungs and an increased level of carbon dioxide in the blood.
Proteins that are bound to the outside of the plasma membrane but not a part of it. (like to sit on bilayer)
Form of transport, Primary or Secondary, requires energy.
Molecule used for communcationExample: NO
Small proteins released from cells that affect the behavior of neighboring cells.
Proteins that pass all the way through the plasma membrane.
Protein that allows chlorine to flow into/out of the cell membrane
Specific membrane protein that binds to each other and helps pull a vesicle and cell membrane together. Extends from the cell membrane
Promote white cell homing - eosinophils in particular, increased vascular permeability, giving rise to edema, bronchiole constriction due to smooth muscle contraction,and mucus secretion by respiratory epithelial cells.
Muscles completely lose contractability
Modifications that occur after the proteins are translated from RNA
Cells that wait for a trigger to release their contents through the process of degranulation.
Blocking of exocrine pancreatic ducts
Rigid contraction paralysis.
What is Cysteine?
Physical sign causing bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes.Caused by a lack of oxygen in the blood. Associated with cold temperatures, heart failure, lung diseases, and smothering
One substrate aids or impedes catalysis by another, implying multiple catalytic subunits
Lack of blood flow
Cells without a true distinct nucleus; i.e. bacteria
A condition characterized by an excess of watery fluid collecting in the cavities or tissues of the body.
The addition of a phosphate group
Typically -70mV, measured inside relative to outside
Inhibitor that binds to the active site.
Guanylyl Cyclase is what type of enzyme?
The addition of ADP-Ribose to the alpha subunit of the G protein, which turns the phosphorylation of GTP off
Taking functions & packing them into one defined region Function of membrane, raises concentrations (need for reactions)
Inhibits G Proteins
Cells with a true distinct nucleus; i.e. multicellular organisms
Proteins embedded in the plasma membrane.
The progression of the disease
Inside of the lumen (hollow organ)
Enzyme that breaks water bonds
Question/DefinitionAnswer/TermExtra Info
Energy from ATP hydrolysis is used directly by the transporter to move a substance
Acid that is converted into leukotriene A4 by lipoxygenaseCritical in development (pathogenesis) of asthma (attacks)
Enzyme that transfers groups
Causing diarrhea
Imply separate proteins that are stuck to one another and work together; one such protein is a _______ of the assembly.
Difficulty breathing
Noncompetitive inhibitor binds to somewhere besides the active site altering the shape of the enzyme.
Inflamation of the joints
Part of an enzyme that serves to bind to an inhibitor in order to regulate the catalytic domain
Barrier to the transport of larger molecules especially ones that are polar or charged.
Main costs associated with a given disease. (hospitalization, eppipins) Not including lost income from not being able to work…etc.
Keep membranes fluid at low temperatures and reduces fluidity at high temperatures.
Lining of the gut that absorbs nutrients from digested food.
Outer layer, can refer to skin or the inside of the intestines…etc.
How many Ca2+ can you transport with one ATP under typical conditions?Intracellular Calcium = .1 uM; Extracellular calcium = 1 mM
Lethal dose for 50% of the population
Low blood pressure
The attraction of leukocytes by chemical means.
Smaller portion of the toxin. Important part.
Less Hydrogens bound to carbons in fatty acids. Causing double or triple bonds which lead to kinks in the chain.
Producing, i.e. they will regenerate their secretory granulesin reference to Eosinophils
Inside of the bronchioles
Substrate concentration that gives ½ maximal velocity, units of Concentration
Specific leukotriene responsible for the problems of asthma
Cause of disease.
Biological catalysts
Any of various phosphorous-containing lipids that are composed mainly of fatty acids, a phosphate group, and a simple organic molecule. Also called phosphatide.
Pertaining to cilia on mucus covered surfaces
Process by which vesicles full of crystalline structures, granules, go through exocytosis, dumping their contents to the outside.These granules are toxic to eukaryotic, multicellular organisms, and recruit additional white blood cells (cytokines)
Generally involved in attacks on parasites and multicellular organisms. Distinct Golgi, distinctive granules, normally few in the circulation.
Add phosphates to proteins
Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate (cGMP) is what?
Structurally and functionally distinct regions of a single protein.
Suffix; too few
Any of the minute branches into which a bronchus divides, lead to alveoli.
The vSNARE found in synaptic vesicles containing neurotransmitters.
A G protein inhibitor that increased secretion of water in the intestine, which can produce massive diarrhea.

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