Cell and Molecular Bio Test 1 Part 1

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Can you name the terms for Test 1?

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Question/DefinitionAnswer/TermExtra Info
Taking functions & packing them into one defined region Function of membrane, raises concentrations (need for reactions)
Substances released from cells that affect the behavior of neighboring cells; generic term.
What is Cysteine?
Protein that allows chlorine to flow into/out of the cell membrane
A G protein inhibitor that increased secretion of water in the intestine, which can produce massive diarrhea.
Enzyme that converts cGMP and cAMP back into their respective counterparts
Substrate concentration that gives ½ maximal velocity, units of Concentration
Cause of disease.
Passive or facilitated. Dispersion due to random thermal motion.
Lining of the gut that absorbs nutrients from digested food.
Enzyme that transfers groups
Suffix; too many
Recurring
Biological catalysts
Structurally and functionally distinct regions of a single protein.
Neurons responsible for movement.
Smaller portion of the toxin. Important part.
The attraction of leukocytes by chemical means.
Inhibitor that binds to an alternate site to change the conformation of the enzyme.
Muscles completely lose contractability
The addition of a phosphate group
Process by which vesicles full of crystalline structures, granules, go through exocytosis, dumping their contents to the outside.These granules are toxic to eukaryotic, multicellular organisms, and recruit additional white blood cells (cytokines)
Enzyme that stores or passes electrons
Barrier to the transport of larger molecules especially ones that are polar or charged.
White Blood cells responsible for the immune response of the body.
Leave the tissue to become mast cells. Release substances that increase vascular permeability and recruit other immune cells – inflammation.Highly granular
Main costs associated with a given disease. (hospitalization, eppipins) Not including lost income from not being able to work…etc.
Activated by cGMP in order to phosphorylate proteins
Condition in which you fail to make or respond to insulin
Membrane proteins that bind to one another and help pull vesicle and cell membranes together.
Keep membranes fluid at low temperatures and reduces fluidity at high temperatures.
Proteins that are covalently bound to a phospholipid on the exterior of the plasma membrane. (can flow along surface, but never leave)
Noncompetitive inhibitor binds to somewhere besides the active site altering the shape of the enzyme.
Chloride Channel that is faulty in Cystic Fibrosis
The progression of the disease
Rate at saturation for a given enzyme concentration in moles per unit time.
ΔG for ATP Hydrolysis
Proteins that are bound to the outside of the plasma membrane but not a part of it. (like to sit on bilayer)
The use of light measurements to measure how dark something is.
Question/DefinitionAnswer/TermExtra Info
Suffix; too few
Property of blood capillary walls that allows for the selective exchange of substances.
Modifications that occur after the proteins are translated from RNA
Reduced or deficient ventilation of the lungs, resulting in reduced aeration of blood in the lungs and an increased level of carbon dioxide in the blood.
Having one dominant and one recessive form of a gene
The process of pushing through the blood vessel wall into the tissue
Generally involved in attacks on parasites and multicellular organisms. Distinct Golgi, distinctive granules, normally few in the circulation.
Reduction of oxygen supply to a tissue below physiological levels despite adequate perfusion of the tissue by blood.
Most deadly toxins in the world. Cleave synaptobrevin.
Less Hydrogens bound to carbons in fatty acids. Causing double or triple bonds which lead to kinks in the chain.
Inside of the bronchioles
Physical sign causing bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes.Caused by a lack of oxygen in the blood. Associated with cold temperatures, heart failure, lung diseases, and smothering
Energy from ATP hydrolysis is used directly by the transporter to move a substance
Energy from an electrochemical gradient is used to drive the transport of another
Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate (cGMP) is what?
Cells way of taking in material by forming vesicles with outside fluid inside of them.
Form of transport, Primary or Secondary, requires energy.
Difficulty breathing
Process of transferring a ribosyl group
Cells without a true distinct nucleus; i.e. bacteria
Enzyme that removes Phosphate groups
How many Ca2+ can you transport with one ATP under typical conditions?Intracellular Calcium = .1 uM; Extracellular calcium = 1 mM
Neuron that prevents motor neuron activity
Specific leukotriene responsible for the problems of asthma
Promote white cell homing - eosinophils in particular, increased vascular permeability, giving rise to edema, bronchiole constriction due to smooth muscle contraction,and mucus secretion by respiratory epithelial cells.
One protein binds to another, thereby activating the enzymatic activity of one of them.
Pertaining to cilia on mucus covered surfaces
Part of an enzyme that serves to bind to an inhibitor in order to regulate the catalytic domain
Inside of the lumen (hollow organ)
Enzyme that breaks water bonds
Enzyme found in basophils that converts Arachidonic acid into Leukotriene A4
Adding/removing groups or cleaving bonds
Imply separate proteins that are stuck to one another and work together; one such protein is a _______ of the assembly.
Lethal dose for 50% of the population
Inflamation of the joints
Mucus and “bad stuff”
Lack of blood flow from low blood volume
Proteins that pass all the way through the plasma membrane.
One substrate aids or impedes catalysis by another, implying multiple catalytic subunits
Question/DefinitionAnswer/TermExtra Info
Enzyme that cleaves synaptobrevin in the middle
Cells with a true distinct nucleus; i.e. multicellular organisms
Any of various phosphorous-containing lipids that are composed mainly of fatty acids, a phosphate group, and a simple organic molecule. Also called phosphatide.
Lack of blood flow
Small proteins released from cells that affect the behavior of neighboring cells.
A condition characterized by an excess of watery fluid collecting in the cavities or tissues of the body.
Part of an enzyme that is used for lowering the activation energy for a particular reaction
Inhibitor that binds to the active site.
The total number of cases of a disease in a given population for a given year.
Guanylyl Cyclase is what type of enzyme?
Any of the minute branches into which a bronchus divides, lead to alveoli.
The vSNARE found in synaptic vesicles containing neurotransmitters.
A state of 'suspended animation' that some bacteria can adopt when conditions are not ideal for growth. They are analogous to plant seeds and can germinate into growing bacteria wh
Build-up of carbon dioxide in the blood produces a shift in the body's pH balance and causes the body's system to become more acidic.Caused by hypoventilation
Blocking of exocrine pancreatic ducts
Low blood pressure
Add phosphates to proteins
Producing, i.e. they will regenerate their secretory granulesin reference to Eosinophils
The ejection of mucus, sputum, or fluids from the trachea and lungs by coughing or spitting.
Molecule used for communcationExample: NO
Specific membrane protein that binds to each other and helps pull a vesicle and cell membrane together. Extends from the cell membrane
Inhibits G Proteins
Causing diarrhea
Cells that wait for a trigger to release their contents through the process of degranulation.
The likely course of a disease or ailment
Proteins embedded in the plasma membrane.
Rigid contraction paralysis.
The extent or rate of occurrence, especially the number of new cases of a disease in a population over a period of time.
Specific membrane protein that binds to each other and helps pull a vesicle and cell membrane together. Extends from vesicle membrane
What is Arginine?
Rate at saturation for 1 enzyme molecule (reactions catalyzed per second per molecule)
Typically -70mV, measured inside relative to outside
Acid that is converted into leukotriene A4 by lipoxygenaseCritical in development (pathogenesis) of asthma (attacks)
Control of function in some way
Outer layer, can refer to skin or the inside of the intestines…etc.
The addition of ADP-Ribose to the alpha subunit of the G protein, which turns the phosphorylation of GTP off
A layer of cells that lines the inside of certain body cavities, for example, blood vessels.

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