IB Environmental Systems Topic 3- Soil Resources

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Can you name the facts about soil and human interactions with it?

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1st soil horizon- fresh to partly decomposed organic matter
2nd soil horizon- highly decomposed organic matter in mineral matrix
3rd soil horizon- coarse minerals (iron, carbonates, aluminum, clay materials moved to lower horizons) (sometimes considered part of above horizon)
4th soil horizon- fine organic material & clay minerals from A horizon on top layer, clay & iron oxide accumulation below
5th soil horizon- partially weathered parent material (from heavily weathered at top to unweathered at base)
What is underneath all soil horizons
Types of Soil Transformations
Soil-Forming Factors
Types of Mechanical Weathering
Type of weathering where fast heating & cooling makes rocks expand & contract fast & break down
In what type of climates is above type of weathering common?
What type of mechanical weathering is most powerful?
Types of Chemical Weathering
How many times faster do reaction rates go if average soil temperature rises by 10°C?
Types of Weathering Caused by More Rain
Chemical dissolving of minerals under certain pH in water that goes to lower soil horizon where they precipitate out
Which is quicker, soil formation or erosion? (answer with one word)
Soil Properties (Good for Growing Things) Affected by Adding Organic Material
Process where certain prokaryotes convert N2 to minerals usable by plants
Types of Soil Particles, Largest to Smallest
Mix of sand, silt, and clay, mixes sand & silt's drainage with clay's ability to hold water & nutrients, good farming soil
Human Soil-Harming Activities
Types of Soil Degradation
Ways to Conserve Soil
Wind Reduction Techniques
Line of trees/shrubs to protect fields, help crops, conserve water & soil
Line of trees to reduce wind erosion & runoff from snowmelt
Technique where alternating strips of different crops planted along the natural contours of the land
Sustainable Cultivation Techniques
Land that doesn't consistently produce crop (drought, shallow soils, etc.)

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