IB Environmental Systems Topic 3- Soil Resources

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Can you name the facts about soil and human interactions with it?

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1st soil horizon- fresh to partly decomposed organic matter
 
2nd soil horizon- highly decomposed organic matter in mineral matrix
 
3rd soil horizon- coarse minerals (iron, carbonates, aluminum, clay materials moved to lower horizons) (sometimes considered part of above horizon)
 
4th soil horizon- fine organic material & clay minerals from A horizon on top layer, clay & iron oxide accumulation below
 
5th soil horizon- partially weathered parent material (from heavily weathered at top to unweathered at base)
 
What is underneath all soil horizons
 
Types of Soil Transformations
 
 
 
Soil-Forming Factors
 
 
 
 
Types of Mechanical Weathering
 
 
 
 
 
Type of weathering where fast heating & cooling makes rocks expand & contract fast & break down
 
In what type of climates is above type of weathering common?
 
What type of mechanical weathering is most powerful?
 
Types of Chemical Weathering
 
 
 
How many times faster do reaction rates go if average soil temperature rises by 10°C?
 
Types of Weathering Caused by More Rain
 
 
Chemical dissolving of minerals under certain pH in water that goes to lower soil horizon where they precipitate out
 
Which is quicker, soil formation or erosion? (answer with one word)
 
Soil Properties (Good for Growing Things) Affected by Adding Organic Material
 
 
 
Process where certain prokaryotes convert N2 to minerals usable by plants
 
Types of Soil Particles, Largest to Smallest
 
 
 
Mix of sand, silt, and clay, mixes sand & silt's drainage with clay's ability to hold water & nutrients, good farming soil
 
Human Soil-Harming Activities
 
 
 
 
Types of Soil Degradation
 
 
 
 
Ways to Conserve Soil
 
 
 
 
 
 
Wind Reduction Techniques
 
 
 
Line of trees/shrubs to protect fields, help crops, conserve water & soil
 
Line of trees to reduce wind erosion & runoff from snowmelt
 
Technique where alternating strips of different crops planted along the natural contours of the land
 
Sustainable Cultivation Techniques
 
 
 
 
Land that doesn't consistently produce crop (drought, shallow soils, etc.)
 

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