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History of Religion: Midterm Exam 2
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order of importance: Muhammad, Ali, Hussein?
4 ways of livelihood: herding, agriculture, trade, rading?
orphaned and lives with grandpa who dies when 8?
raid northern mediterranean sea from spain to italy?
called by Constantine, 1st ecumenical council?
missionary strategy: focused on upper classes, kept vows, self-sufficient, women?
not a pope, from northern england?
asked to run medina?
council that rejects Arianism?
taught in an English monastary until the age of 40?
converts to Christianity in 496 (3000 soldiers follow)?
gabriel gave _____ to muhammad, it existed in heaven beforehand?
known as the 'apostle to Germany'?
founder of medieval papacy?
council condemned Apollinarius who believed Jesus wasn't completey human?
his 'rule' became standard for western monks?
2nd ecumenical council?
dad dies at birth, amenia dies when 6?
travels to rome to have pope zecherias crown him?
1st to claim the authority allegedly given to Peter by Christ in Matthew 16?
Uthman: wasn't popular or strong leader, assassinated by followers of Ali?
reaffirms nicean creed and added clause showing more clearly that Holy Spirit is divine?
population decline through war and starvation?
council condemns Nestorius who opposed the term 'mother of God'?
3rd ecumenical council?
attacked england, western frankish empire and paris 3x?
most important Christian scholar of his time?
collection and content: historical evidence shows changes in verses (denial)?
council condemned Eutyches (monophysitism: taught Jesus had one nature, defied human nature)?
witness, prayer, almsgiving, fasting, pilgrimage?
clarrified doctrine of purgatory?
charles martel's son?
Angel Gabriel appears to him on Mt. Hira and says 'igra'?
dad had him crown himself?
begins anchoritic monasticism (people living as hermits)?
married catholic princess, Clotild?
ruler of mecca and destroys ka'ba?
attracks desciples and loose communities formed to imitate his conduct?
Abu Bakr: father of muhammad's favorite wife, reunites tribes?
had missionary activity in England?
believe community should elect follower?
has 3 sons that die and 4 daughters?
church property destroyed?
was sent to Rome to be educated, but became disgusted with culture?
was prefect in rome, monk, abbott, ambassador, and pope?
became a hermit and eventually founded a monastary in Monte Cassino?
marries khadija when 25 and she dies at 55?
at the age of 40 he decided to become a missionary to Germany?
1st 4 caliphs?
torah and injil: jews and christians corrupted ____?
election and pontification of _____ also showed secular power and corruption that could enter the church?
won election for pope over ursinus because he was wealthier and had more sponsers?
priests needed to be educated, sent cannons?
fragmentation of the Holy Roman Empire?
supports of ______ massacred 137 followers of ursinus during a street fight?
most remarkable pope of the early church?
sayings muhammad, 200 yrs orally transmitted ?
takes title 'ponifex maximus'?
114 ch., a little smaller than NT?
political and religious leaders of Islam?
appoints bishops and calls synods?
says 'to deny Pope is to deny Peter; to deny Peter is to deny Christ'?
caliphate should be political and military leader for community?
quadrivium and trivium?
goes into caravan business?
treastie about nature of Christ was the basis for Chalcedon in 451?
son is louis 'the pius'?
lives with uncle, Abu Talib?
wrote on history, Scriptures, hymnology, geography and nature?
rents land to farmers, brings people in to teach the farmers and gives the rent to the poor?
doesn't name successor?
because of the Lombards _____ came to control civil duties of Rome and papacy?
goal to pilage-not settle?
wrote 'pastoral rule'?
geography: 1,000,000 square miles (about 1/3 of US)?
tribal society: organized by clans?
has 2 sons: Charles and Carloman?
Umar: military campaign and spreads Islam from arabia to atlantic?
religion: pagan, polydeistic, have to please gods, after life varies?
cover from angel to how he brushed his teeth?
Ka'ba: central shrine in Meca, housed 360 idols?
born in mecca AD 570?
imam: religious leader should lead, view as divinely inspired (not prophet)?
divided Frankish kingdom among sons?
reforms the church: gregorian chant, mass, priests wear distinct clothes, vulgate, apostle's creed, benedictine rule?
age 7-lived in monastary, age 19-deacon, age 30-priest?
adopts 2 sons, one Ali who is Abu Talib's son and marries Fatima?
god's son, divine, crucified and ressurected, an atoning sacrifice?
fostered veneration of relics and use of images?
day of judgement?
spent 20 years as a hermit and returned to civilization?
Ali: a lot of opposition, assassinated in AD 661?
mayor of the palace: commands troops, nobleman, works for king?
muhammad is allah's rasool?
the pilgrimage, critiqued wealthy and lost abu talib's protection?
upon his death he leaves the kingdom to his 3 sons?
stephen 2 calls on him to defend papacy from Lombards?
AD 600-800 called 'the age of ____'?
____ and followers leave mecca and head to medina?
chops down sacred oak and makes churches out of it?
crowned king by leo 2 on christmas day AD 800?
AD 630 marched on Meccans with 10,000 soldiers and they asked for peace?
defeats muslims in the battle of tours?
dies in AD 632?
could speak Latin, Greek and some Hebrew?
commissioned jerome for the vulgate?
Umar: puts together Qur'an and gets assassinated?
islamic law: no seperation of church and state?
donates conquered lands to the papacy?
leader should follow blood line of muhammad?
not a strong leader, has pope crown him?
believe Ali was 1st caliphate even though he let 3 others go first?
after winning a battle, he claims himself king of the Franks?
90% ____ vs. 10%____ in Iran?
eternal and uncreated?
wrote 'Ecclesiastical History of the English People'?
lower standards of living?
after little missionary success, he got endorsement from the pope and Frankish king?
622 becomes their 0 year, marked AH for 'after hijra'?
2 parties: one favored Ali and others believed in vote?
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