Electrical Concepts & Waveforms

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Can you name the Electrical Concepts & Waveforms?

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What are changes in current characteristics to produce a desired clinical effect?
What is the time it takes to complete one cycle?
What is the unidirectional flow of current over time?
What type of current has polar effects and a net charge
Time required for a finite series of pulses to occur
Opposition to movement of electrons/current flow (measured in ohms)
Are current and impedence directly or inversely proportional?
What is the amount of current applied by a single pulse?
Type of e-stim for wound healing, pain relief & reduction of muscle spasm (not spasticity). It is a subsensory stim
What is the time between the end of one pulse and the beginning of the next pulse?
Ability to store charge (battery, resting potential in muscle/nerve)
Time between bursts
Type of e-stim used to facilitate standing or ambulation in patients with neurological impairments. Used in place of orthotic, sling or splint. Used to enhance usage of upper extre
What is the time between the end of one phase and the beginning of the next successive phase?
The four parameters for electrical stimulation
The positive pole of a circuit that attracts negatively charged ions
Device made of conductive material that is used to deliver stimulation to target tissue via wires or leads
What is the minimum amplitude required to activate excitable cell at an infinite duration of stimulus?
What occurs when stimulus is applied gradually over a prolonged period of time without depolarization (b/c cell is unable to reach threshold)?
What is the number of pulses per second?
What is the time from peak amplitude to zero amplitude?
Relationship between on time and off time, expressed as a percentage
Type of e-stim in which the primary goal is muscle excitation, facilitation, strengthening, ROM, or reducing spasticity
What is the progressive increase or decrease in pulse amplitude for a train of pulses (used to help with comfort)?
What is the highest or lowest point on the waveform (clinically referred to as the intensity)?
Form of e-stim that has a primary goal of pain relief. Can be on a sensory or motor level
What is the time from the start of the phase until the point where current changes direction?
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What is the time from beginning of phase to peak amplitude?
Type of input that is smaller, portable, and can be used at home
Negative charged ion
What is the time from the start of the pulse to the end of the pulse?
The negative pole of a circuit that attracts positively charged ions
Substances with low resistance that allow transmission of current (i.e. copper, muscle, nerve)
Substances such as gel, water, sponges soaked in water, or adhesive electrodes that reduce resistance at the skin (creating electrode interface)
'The larger the charged particles & the closer they are together, the greater the amount of force'
What current do you use for muscles that are totally denervated?
What is the magnitude of current delivered over a specific period of time?
A finite series of pulses and form of frequency modulation
The number of trains of pulses per second (i.e. bursts per second)
Is current directly or inversely proportional to voltage?
What is the continuous flow of current over time?
Driving force that causes charged particles to move. This produces movement of charged particles through a conductor creating a flow of electricity
Flow of electricity as charged particles move through a conductor (measured in amperes or amps)
Substances with high resistance that prevent transmission of current (i.e. rubber, skin, fat)
Positively charged ion
What type of current has an uninterrupted bidirectional flow of charged particles and is balanced?
What type of current has no net charge (amount of charge in 1st phase equals charge in 2nd phase)?
Pulses per second (frequency within each burst)
What is the duration of stimulus needed when amplitude is twice the rheobase?
'Current increases as voltage increases & current decreases as resistance increases'
What occurs when a patient gets used to a stimulus that has been applied for a long period of time without modulation (there is still propagation of action potential)?
Resistance to alternating current
Units that measure the force existing between two charged particles
Type of input that uses a wall current

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