Electrical Concepts & Waveforms

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Can you name the Electrical Concepts & Waveforms?

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Driving force that causes charged particles to move. This produces movement of charged particles through a conductor creating a flow of electricity
What is the progressive increase or decrease in pulse amplitude for a train of pulses (used to help with comfort)?
What occurs when stimulus is applied gradually over a prolonged period of time without depolarization (b/c cell is unable to reach threshold)?
What is the time from beginning of phase to peak amplitude?
The negative pole of a circuit that attracts positively charged ions
What is the continuous flow of current over time?
Ability to store charge (battery, resting potential in muscle/nerve)
Are current and impedence directly or inversely proportional?
The four parameters for electrical stimulation
Flow of electricity as charged particles move through a conductor (measured in amperes or amps)
Negative charged ion
Type of input that is smaller, portable, and can be used at home
Substances with low resistance that allow transmission of current (i.e. copper, muscle, nerve)
Relationship between on time and off time, expressed as a percentage
What is the time from the start of the phase until the point where current changes direction?
Opposition to movement of electrons/current flow (measured in ohms)
Substances such as gel, water, sponges soaked in water, or adhesive electrodes that reduce resistance at the skin (creating electrode interface)
What is the time between the end of one phase and the beginning of the next successive phase?
The number of trains of pulses per second (i.e. bursts per second)
What is the amount of current applied by a single pulse?
What is the time from peak amplitude to zero amplitude?
What is the highest or lowest point on the waveform (clinically referred to as the intensity)?
Pulses per second (frequency within each burst)
What type of current has an uninterrupted bidirectional flow of charged particles and is balanced?
Positively charged ion
What is the time from the start of the pulse to the end of the pulse?
What occurs when a patient gets used to a stimulus that has been applied for a long period of time without modulation (there is still propagation of action potential)?
What is the number of pulses per second?
Resistance to alternating current
Type of e-stim for wound healing, pain relief & reduction of muscle spasm (not spasticity). It is a subsensory stim
What are changes in current characteristics to produce a desired clinical effect?
What is the duration of stimulus needed when amplitude is twice the rheobase?
What is the time between the end of one pulse and the beginning of the next pulse?
The positive pole of a circuit that attracts negatively charged ions
Units that measure the force existing between two charged particles
'Current increases as voltage increases & current decreases as resistance increases'
Type of e-stim in which the primary goal is muscle excitation, facilitation, strengthening, ROM, or reducing spasticity
What is the minimum amplitude required to activate excitable cell at an infinite duration of stimulus?
A finite series of pulses and form of frequency modulation
What is the magnitude of current delivered over a specific period of time?
Time between bursts
Type of e-stim used to facilitate standing or ambulation in patients with neurological impairments. Used in place of orthotic, sling or splint. Used to enhance usage of upper extre
'The larger the charged particles & the closer they are together, the greater the amount of force'
What type of current has polar effects and a net charge
Form of e-stim that has a primary goal of pain relief. Can be on a sensory or motor level
Device made of conductive material that is used to deliver stimulation to target tissue via wires or leads
What type of current has no net charge (amount of charge in 1st phase equals charge in 2nd phase)?
Type of input that uses a wall current
Substances with high resistance that prevent transmission of current (i.e. rubber, skin, fat)
What is the time it takes to complete one cycle?
Is current directly or inversely proportional to voltage?
What current do you use for muscles that are totally denervated?
What is the unidirectional flow of current over time?
Time required for a finite series of pulses to occur

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