Electrical Concepts & Waveforms

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Can you name the Electrical Concepts & Waveforms?

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What occurs when a patient gets used to a stimulus that has been applied for a long period of time without modulation (there is still propagation of action potential)?
Substances such as gel, water, sponges soaked in water, or adhesive electrodes that reduce resistance at the skin (creating electrode interface)
Type of e-stim used to facilitate standing or ambulation in patients with neurological impairments. Used in place of orthotic, sling or splint. Used to enhance usage of upper extre
Is current directly or inversely proportional to voltage?
What is the time between the end of one pulse and the beginning of the next pulse?
Type of e-stim in which the primary goal is muscle excitation, facilitation, strengthening, ROM, or reducing spasticity
What is the time from beginning of phase to peak amplitude?
What is the continuous flow of current over time?
Form of e-stim that has a primary goal of pain relief. Can be on a sensory or motor level
Device made of conductive material that is used to deliver stimulation to target tissue via wires or leads
Type of input that is smaller, portable, and can be used at home
The positive pole of a circuit that attracts negatively charged ions
Time between bursts
What is the minimum amplitude required to activate excitable cell at an infinite duration of stimulus?
Relationship between on time and off time, expressed as a percentage
What type of current has polar effects and a net charge
What is the time between the end of one phase and the beginning of the next successive phase?
What type of current has an uninterrupted bidirectional flow of charged particles and is balanced?
The negative pole of a circuit that attracts positively charged ions
What is the time it takes to complete one cycle?
What is the unidirectional flow of current over time?
Resistance to alternating current
Type of input that uses a wall current
'Current increases as voltage increases & current decreases as resistance increases'
Time required for a finite series of pulses to occur
Are current and impedence directly or inversely proportional?
Pulses per second (frequency within each burst)
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The number of trains of pulses per second (i.e. bursts per second)
What is the magnitude of current delivered over a specific period of time?
Substances with high resistance that prevent transmission of current (i.e. rubber, skin, fat)
What is the amount of current applied by a single pulse?
Opposition to movement of electrons/current flow (measured in ohms)
Units that measure the force existing between two charged particles
What type of current has no net charge (amount of charge in 1st phase equals charge in 2nd phase)?
What is the time from the start of the pulse to the end of the pulse?
Negative charged ion
Driving force that causes charged particles to move. This produces movement of charged particles through a conductor creating a flow of electricity
The four parameters for electrical stimulation
What is the progressive increase or decrease in pulse amplitude for a train of pulses (used to help with comfort)?
What current do you use for muscles that are totally denervated?
A finite series of pulses and form of frequency modulation
What is the number of pulses per second?
What is the highest or lowest point on the waveform (clinically referred to as the intensity)?
Positively charged ion
What occurs when stimulus is applied gradually over a prolonged period of time without depolarization (b/c cell is unable to reach threshold)?
Type of e-stim for wound healing, pain relief & reduction of muscle spasm (not spasticity). It is a subsensory stim
Flow of electricity as charged particles move through a conductor (measured in amperes or amps)
'The larger the charged particles & the closer they are together, the greater the amount of force'
What are changes in current characteristics to produce a desired clinical effect?
What is the duration of stimulus needed when amplitude is twice the rheobase?
Substances with low resistance that allow transmission of current (i.e. copper, muscle, nerve)
What is the time from the start of the phase until the point where current changes direction?
What is the time from peak amplitude to zero amplitude?
Ability to store charge (battery, resting potential in muscle/nerve)

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