A2 Biology Revision

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Can you name the Keywords from the textbook definition?

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DescriptionKey Word
Protein channels across a cell surface membrane that uses ATP to move sodium ions out of a cell in exchange for potassium ions which move in
Consequence of an increase in nutrients in fresh water lakes and rivers, often leads to a decrease in biodiversity
Undifferentiated dividing cells that occur in embryos and in adult animal tissues that require constant replacement eg. bone marrow
A group of enzymes that cut DNA molecules at a recognition sequence
A hormone produced by beta cells in the islets of langerhans in the pancreas, which decreases blood glucose levels by increasing the rate of conversion of glucose to glycogen
A sequence of 3 adjacent nucleotides in mRNA that codes for one amino acid
Mutated versions of proto-oncogenes that result in increased cell division. Normally resulting in a tumour
Widening of the Internal diameter of blood vessels
The number of times an allele occurs within the gene pool
Region of the brain adjoining the pituitary gland that acts as a control for the autonomic nervous system and regulates body temperature and fluid balance
A mechanism by which genetic diseases, may be cured by masking the effect of the defective gene by inserting a functioning gene
Process of making many copies of a specific sequence of DNA or part of a gene
Refers to experiments carried out outside the living bodies
The first part of cellular respiration in which glucose is broken down anaerobically in the cytoplasm into 2 molecules of pyruvate
An animal that maintains its body temperature by physiological mechanisms
The range and variety of living organisms within a particular area
A junction between neurones in which they do not touch but have a narrow gap, the synaptic cleft, over which a neurotransmitter can pass
Narrowing of the internal diameter of blood vessels
Part of the nervous system, controlling the muscles and glands, that is not under voluntary control
The thick filamentous protein found in skeletal muscle
Stage of photosynthesis in which the light energy is required to produce ATP and reduced NADP
The breaking down of large molecules into smaller ones by the addition of water molecules
A synapse that occurs between a Neurone and a Muscle
A gene that maintains normal rates of cell division and so prevents the development of tumours
Period during which the membrane of the axon of a neurone cannot be depolarised and no new action potential can be initiated
Filamentous protein which is involved in contraction within cells. Especially Muscle cells.
A gap in the myelin sheath that surrounds the axon of a neurone
The conversion of glycogen to glucose
A hormone produced by alpha cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas that increases blood glucose levels by initiating the breakdown of glycogen
DescriptionKey Word
A length of DNA on a chromosome normally coding for a particular polypeptide
A plant adapted to living in dry conditions
Stage of photosynthesis which does not require light energy but does need the products of the LDR
Selection that operates towards one extreme in a range of variation.
Formation of messenger RNA molecules from the DNA that makes up a particular gene. It is the 1st stage of protein synthesis
A fatty substance that surrounds axons and dendrites in certain neurones
A variable which limits the rate of a chemical reaction
Portions of DNA within a gene that do not code for a polypeptide. Removed from the pre-messenger RNA after transcription
Change that Occurs in the electrical charge across the membrane of an axon when it is stimulated and a nerve impulse passes
A cell which has a membrane bound nucleus that contains chromosomes as well as other membranous organelles eg. ribosome.
A more or less self-contained functional unit in ecology made up of all the interacting biotic and abiotic factors in a specific area
A process, usually branched, extending from the cell body of a neurone, which conducts impulses towards the cell body
An animal that uses the environment to regulate its body temperature
An enzyme that acts on a specific region of the DNA molecule to break down hydrogen bonds between the bases causing the 2 strands to separate and expose the nucleotide bases
The maintenance of a more or less constant internal environment
A carrier. The term may refer to something such as a plasmid which carries DNA into a cell
The conversion of non-carbohydrate molecules to glucose
A biochemical pathway that forms part of the light independent reaction of photosynthesis, during with CO2 is reduced to form carbohydrate
A detectable alteration in the internal or external environment of an organism that produces some change in that organism
The process linking glycolysis with the krebs cycle in which H and CO2 are removed from pyruvate to produce acetyl coenzyme A in the matrix of the mitochondria
Series of aerobic biochemical reactions in the matrix of the mitochondria of more eukaryotic cells by which energy is obtained through the oxidation of acetylcoenzyme A
One form of a gene.
Refers to experiments which are carried out within living bodies
A technique used to separate DNA fragments of different lengths by placing them on Agar Gel and passing a voltage across them
The place where an organism normally lives, which is characterised by physical conditions and the species of other organisms present
A nerve cell adapted to conduct action potentials
A condition in which the alleles of a particular gene are different
The conversion of glucose to glycogen
Any microorganism which causes disease

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